More than eighty years have passed since the first edition of the famous Lexicon upon which the present work is based was published by the Clarendon Press. Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott—the latter a Craven and Ireland Scholar—were both placed in the First Class in the Oxford list of 1833, both having been born in 1811. In 1835 Scott became a Fellow of Balliol and in the following year Liddell was elected to a Studentship of Christ Church. It appears that Mr. Talboys, an Oxford bookseller and publisher, first approached Scott with a proposal that a Greek-English Lexicon, based on that of Franz Passow, should be compiled, and that Scott made his acceptance conditional on the consent of Liddell to join in the work; at any rate, it was Talboys who first undertook the publication, which was taken over after his retirement by the Clarendon Press. There is, however, some ground for thinking that William Sewell, who had been an examiner in the Schools of 1833, suggested the idea to Liddell and Scott; and Liddell mentions in his correspondence the encouragement which the project received from Dean Gaisford.
The Lexicon of Passow, which the Oxford scholars took as the basis of their work, was itself founded upon that of Johann Gottlob Schneider, the editor of Theophrastus, the first edition of which had appeared in 1797-8. Passow had laid down, in his Essay on Zweck, Anlage, und Ergänzung griechischer Wörerbücher, published in 1812, the canons by which the lexicographer should be guided, amongst which the most important was the requirement that citations should be chronologically arranged in order to exhibit the history of each word and its uses. In obedience to this principle, Passow based his work on a special study of the Early Epic vocabulary, and the relatively full treatment of Homeric usage is a legacy bequeathed by him to Liddell and Scott which has persisted throughout the successive editions of their work. The first edition of his Lexicon appeared in 1819, and his expressed intention was to expand the work gradually by incorporating successively the results of special studies of Early Lyric Poetry, the Ionic Prose of Herodotus and Hippocrates, the Attic dramatists, and the Attic Prose writers: but little change was made in his second and third editions (1825 and 1827), and the fourth (1831), in which the Early Lyric poets and Herodotus received fuller recognition, was the first in which he felt himself at liberty to omit the name of Schneider from his title-page and also the last to appear in his lifetime. He died in 1833 in his forty-seventh year.
In the meantime two attempts had been made to adapt the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae of Henri Estienne to modern uses. The first of these was the result of the activities of Abraham Valpy, and was largely the work of E. H. Barker of Trinity College, Cambridge. It was completed in nine folio volumes, published in 1819-28, and reproduced the text of Stephanus' Thesaurus, interlarded with a mass of copious but ill-digested information. The first volume met with vigorous and not undeserved criticism on the part of Bishop Blomfield in an article in the Quarterly Review (vol. xxii, pp. 302 ff.) which is marred by a lavish display of odium philologicum. The editors, however, profited by the Bishop's strictures, and his prophecy that a work in which 139 columns were devoted to the word
ἄγαλμα would run to fifty volumes and attain to completion in 1889 was signally falsified. The work labours under the serious disadvantage of retaining the etymological arrangement of Stephanus,In 1812 Passow himself had advocated the retention of Stephanus' arrangement; but he fortunately abandoned it in favour of the alphabetical principle. which forces the reader to make a laborious search for any compound or derived word.
This mistake was avoided by the compilers of the Paris Thesaurus, the publication of which was begun in 1831 by Firmin-Didot, and was placed under the general editorship of Karl Benedict Hase. This enterprise was also subjected to criticism in the Quarterly Review (vol. li, pp. 144 ff.) by J. R. Fishlake (the translator of Buttmann's Lexilogus) on the ground of its unwieldy bulk; but the association of the brothers Wilhelm and Ludwig Dindorf at an early stage of the workTheir names appeared on the title-page of Part IV (containing β), which appeared concurrently with the second half of α. enabled it to be carried through in thirty-four years, and its vast collections of material, though often ill-arranged and unevenly treated, were largely drawn upon by Liddell and Scott in their successive editions.
The first of these appeared in 1843; it was a quarto volume of 1,583 pages, priced at
42s., and 6,000 copies were printed. A second, revised and enlarged, was called for in 1845,
and the editors acknowledged their indebtedness to the German lexicon of Wilhelm Pape,
which had appeared almost simultaneously with their own. In 1849 a third edition,
corrected, but not substantially enlarged, was published, and six years later came the
fourth, revised throughout. This marks a considerable advance on its predecessors, and
much additional material was inserted; but the writers specially recognized were still
chiefly those of the early classical period, including the Lyric poets, the authors of the
Hippocratean writings, and the Attic orators. The editors now felt justified in omitting the
name of Passow from their title-page. Eight thousand copies of this edition were printed,
and the price was reduced to
Some five years later the Delegates of the Clarendon Press were invited to consider the revision of the Lexicon with a view to the incorporation of the rapidly growing material supplied by newly discovered texts on stone and papyrus, for which room might be found by the adoption of more compendious methods of reference; and a conference took place in March 1903, for which Ingram Bywater prepared a memorandum on the projected revision, advice being sought from Henry Jackson, Sir Richard Jebb, J. E. B. Mayor, and Arthur Sidgwick. The Delegates received the project favourably and it was hoped that Mr. Sidgwick might be able to act as editor. Contributions were invited in his name and a fair amount of material was collected, including a large number of notes and suggestions by Professor Leeper of Melbourne. Amongst other English and American scholars whose contributions were of considerable extent may be named the Rev. M. A. Bayfield and Prof. C. J. Goodwin, and particularly Mr. Herbert W. Greene, of whose services to the Lexicon more will be said presently. Mr. Sidgwick was, however, prevented by his duties as a teacher and afterwards by the failure of his health from commencing the work of revision.
In the meantime two more ambitious schemes had been initiated. At the second general assembly of the International Association of Academies, held in London in May 1904, Sir Richard Jebb submitted on behalf of the British Academy a scheme for the compilation of a new Thesaurus of Ancient Greek up to the early part of the seventh century A.D.; and after a discussion in which the difficulty and magnitude of the enterprise were emphasizedKrumbacher was anxious to include Byzantine Greek in the ambit of the new Thesaurus. a Committee of Inquiry, consisting of Sir R. C. Jebb, Professors Diels, Gomperz, Heiberg, Krumbacher, Leo, and M. Perrot, with power to co-opt, was appointed to consider method, means, and preliminary questions in connexion with the proposal. In 1905 Prof. P. Kretschmer was added to the Committee, which drafted a memorandum on the question of establishing a periodical 'Archiv' and an office for the collection of slips. At the close of the year Jebb, who had acted as Chairman, died, and was replaced in 1906 by Gomperz, while Bywater was added to the Committee, which, at a meeting held at Vienna in May, decided to constitute itself a permanent and independent body.
The difficulties of the project had been incisively stated by Diels in an article
published in the Neue Jahrbücher for 1905,p. 692; Diels had already expressed his views in his Elementum (1899), p. ix sqq. in the course of which he wrote as follows:
Any one who bears in mind the bulk of Greek literature, which is at least 10 times as great
[as that of Latin], its dialectical variations, its incredible wealth of forms, the obstinate persistence of
the classical speech for thousands of years down to the fall of Constantinople, or, if you will, until
the present day: who knows, moreover, that the editions of almost all the Greek classics are entirely
unsuited for the purposes of slipping, that for many important writers no critical editions whatever exist:
and who considers the state of our collections of fragments and special Lexica, will see that at the
present time all the bases upon which a Greek Thesaurus could be erected are lacking.
But even if we were to assume that we possessed such editions and collections from Homer down
to Nonnus, or (as Krumbacher proposed in London) down to Apostolius, and further that they had all
been worked over, slipped, or excerpted by a gigantic staff of scholars, and that a great house had
preserved and stored the thousands of boxes, whence would come the time, money, and power to sift
these millions of slips and to bring Νοῦς into this Chaos ? Since the proportion of Latin to Greek
Literature is about 1:10, the office work of the Greek Thesaurus would occupy at least 100 scholars.
At their head there would have to be a general editor, who, however, would be more of a general than an
editor. And if this editorial cohort were really to perform its task punctually, and if the Association of
Academies, which, as is well known, has not a penny of its own, were to raise the ten million marks
necessary for the completion of (say) 120 volumes; and if scholars were to become so opulent
that they could afford to purchase the Thesaurus Graecus for (say) 6,ooo marks-how could one
read and use such a monstrosity?
Any one who bears in mind the bulk of Greek literature, which is at least 10 times as great [as that of Latin], its dialectical variations, its incredible wealth of forms, the obstinate persistence of the classical speech for thousands of years down to the fall of Constantinople, or, if you will, until the present day: who knows, moreover, that the editions of almost all the Greek classics are entirely unsuited for the purposes of slipping, that for many important writers no critical editions whatever exist: and who considers the state of our collections of fragments and special Lexica, will see that at the present time all the bases upon which a Greek Thesaurus could be erected are lacking.
But even if we were to assume that we possessed such editions and collections from Homer down to Nonnus, or (as Krumbacher proposed in London) down to Apostolius, and further that they had all been worked over, slipped, or excerpted by a gigantic staff of scholars, and that a great house had preserved and stored the thousands of boxes, whence would come the time, money, and power to sift these millions of slips and to bring Νοῦς into this Chaos ? Since the proportion of Latin to Greek Literature is about 1:10, the office work of the Greek Thesaurus would occupy at least 100 scholars. At their head there would have to be a general editor, who, however, would be more of a general than an editor. And if this editorial cohort were really to perform its task punctually, and if the Association of Academies, which, as is well known, has not a penny of its own, were to raise the ten million marks necessary for the completion of (say) 120 volumes; and if scholars were to become so opulent that they could afford to purchase the Thesaurus Graecus for (say) 6,ooo marks-how could one read and use such a monstrosity?
Diels's own solution was the compilation, not of one, but of ten Thesauri, representing the main branches of Greek Literature, Epic, Lyric, Tragic, Comic, Philosophical, Historical, Mathematical and Technical, Medical, Grammatical, and Jewish-Christian, each of which, he thought, would equal the Latin Thesaurus in bulk!A similar suggestion had been made more than half a century earlier by F. A. Wolf in his Vorlesungen über die Altertumswissenschaft i p. 187.
The majority of the members of the Committee, however, were still of the opinion that
a foundation should be laid for the Thesaurus by the preparation of full slips for the whole
of Greek literature on the method which had been adopted for the Latin Thesaurus,
and made a recommendation in this sense to the third assembly of the International
Association of Academies, held at Vienna in May 1907. The Association invited the British
Academy (represented at Vienna by Bywater) to prepare a specimen for submission to the
meeting which was to be held in 1910; but a Committee appointed by the Academy to
consider this proposal, consisting of Bywater, H. Jackson, S. H. Butcher, and Sir F. Kenyon,
reported in the following sense:
They (the Committee) are not convinced that the modus operandi suggested for the projected
Greek Thesaurus is the best possible. They think (a) that the Latin Thesaurus would not provide
a proper scale and model; (b) that the mechanical slipping of Greek texts, besides being as is
confessed a huge undertaking, would not serve as a satisfactory basis, inasmuch as it would give results
difficult to manipulate and of questionable value. Rather, as recommended by M. Paul Meyer at the
discussion in May 1904, they would suggest as a more promising plan that of the New English
They (the Committee) are not convinced that the modus operandi suggested for the projected Greek Thesaurus is the best possible. They think (a) that the Latin Thesaurus would not provide a proper scale and model; (b) that the mechanical slipping of Greek texts, besides being as is confessed a huge undertaking, would not serve as a satisfactory basis, inasmuch as it would give results difficult to manipulate and of questionable value. Rather, as recommended by M. Paul Meyer at the discussion in May 1904, they would suggest as a more promising plan that of the New English Dictionary.
At about the date when the project of a Thesaurus Graecus was finally abandoned, a proposal was made by a group of Greek scholars for the preparation of a Lexicon of the Greek language—Ancient, Medieval, and Modern-the publication of which should commence in 1921 as a memorial of the Centenary of Greek independence. The Greek Government took the scheme under its patronage, and in November 1908 a Commission was appointed by royal decree, at the head of which was the veteran scholar Kontos, who was succeeded on his death by Hatzidakis. Krumbacher, in one of his latest articles in the Byzantinische Zeitschrift,xviii (1909), 708 ff.; criticized the project, and advised the Greek scholars to confine themselves in the first instance to the Modern tongue; and though this recommendation was not, as it seems, formally adopted, the preliminary publications of the Commission consist mainly in a series of studies of the modern dialects, which appear as supplements to Ἀθηνᾶ, and it would appear that a Lexicon of Medieval and Modern Greek is contemplated in the first instance.
When it became clear that Mr. Sidgwick would be unable to carry out the revision of the Lexicon, the Delegates of the Clarendon Press invited me to undertake the work which I did in the autumn of 1911, having been elected by Trinity College to a Research Fellowship which I continued to hold (except for a short period during the war) until my election to the Camden Professorship of Ancient History at the close of 1919. It was hoped at first that the preparation of a revised text might be completed in five years; but before the work had progressed very far it became clear that a more drastic revision than was suggested by a cursory examination would be necessary. Moreover, such large gaps (especially in technical subjects) remained to be filled if the new edition was to be adequate to the needs of modern scholarship—to say nothing of the large mass of new material awaiting incorporation-that the time allotted was evidently insufficient for more than a preliminary revision of Liddell and Scott's text, which would afterwards have to be worked up into a largely re-written Lexicon with the contributions of specialists and others whose help might be enlisted.
Such assistance has been placed at my disposal with a generosity for which I cannot find words adequate to express my gratitude; nor would it be possible within the limits of this preface to enumerate all those who have supplied corrections of, or suggested improvements in, the text of the eighth edition. Mention, however, must be made of those who undertook special researches in aid of the revision.
Taking the more technical subjects first, the most laborious task was that of revising and amplifying the vocabulary of Medicine. It is interesting to recall the fact that many years ago the late Dr. Greenhill, of Trinity College, projected a Lexicon of Greek Medicine, for which he collected a certain amount of material in the shape of references arranged on slips and worked up a small portion of it in a series of articles in the Medico-Chirurgical Journal. He proposed to the Delegates that he should collaborate with M. Daremberg in preparing his Lexicon, but the suggestion did not meet with their approval, and Dr. Greenhill proceeded no further; his collection of slips passed after his death into the possession of the Royal College of Surgeons. It was clearly necessary that the field should be resurveyed, and I was fortunate enough to secure the services of Dr. E. T. Withington, who took up residence in Oxford and has worked untiringly on this difficult subject. He has read for lexicographical purposes the whole of the extant remains of Greek medical literature, and there is scarcely a page in the Lexicon which does not bear traces of his handiwork.Dr. Withington has also found time to deal with the Alchemists and Astrologers, including the extensive collections of the Catalogus Codicum Astrologorum.
For the subject of Botany, again, expert assistance was indispensable. Sir William Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S., has for a long while been collecting material for a Glossary of Greek plants, and the publication of Max Wellmann's edition of Dioscorides, completed in 1914, has furnished a reliable critical text of the most important author in this branch of literature. Sir William Dyer has been most generous in placing the results of his study of Greek plant-names at my disposal, and his identifications are not likely to be disputed. A number of them had already been communicated to Sir Arthur Hort for use in his edition of Theophrastus' Historia Plantarum.Sir Arthur Hort has himself rendered aid in the difficult task of interpreting the Greek of Theophrastus.
The province of Greek Mathematics belongs in a special sense to Sir Thomas
Heath, F.R.S., Whose History of Greek Mathematics and editions of Euclid, Apollonius of
Perga, Aristarchus of Samos, and Diophantus mark him out as the first authority in this
subject. He has found leisure to contribute a large number of notes of the greatest value
on Greek mathematical terms. To take an obvious instance, it will be seen that the eighth
edition of Liddell and Scott recognizes the word ἀσύμπτωτος only in a Medical sense
illustrated by a quotation (not quite accurately translated) from Hippocrates; Sir Thomas
Heath has supplied the materials for a history of the use from which the modern
In the domain of Natural History Professor D'Arcy Thompson's help has enabled me to correct a number of mistakes made by previous lexicographers. His Glossary of Greek Birds has been in constant use, and his version of the Historia Animalium in the Oxford translations of Aristotle to a large extent supplies the want of a glossary of the Animal Kingdom.
In the field of Astronomy and Astrology I have to thank Mr. Edmund J. Webb for reading the Almagest of Ptolemy and other astronomical writings, and thereby greatly increasing the accuracy of the Lexicon in these matters. For the Astrological vocabulary a glossary was drafted by the Rev. C. T. Harley Walker, and the ground has also (as above mentioned) been worked over by Dr. Withington; but in this thorny subject difficulties frequently arise, for which Professor A. E. Housman, when appealed to, never fails to provide a solution.
Amongst technical writings must be classed those of the tacticians and military engineers. The first were studied for my purposes by the late Mr. C. D. Chambers; the latter group, whose works are often very difficult of interpretation, have been read (together with other authors) by Mr. F. W. Hall.
Besides these highly specialized branches of study, there were large tracts of literature
which it was needful to explore, but which a single editor could not hope to cover unaided.
In the matter of papyri, for example, he might be able to deal with the newly recovered
literary texts such as the Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία, Bacchylides, Herodas, Cercidas, and the
recently found fragments of the Early Lyric poets and Callimachus, but the great mass of
non-literary papyri, especially those concerned with the technique of law and administration
in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, required to be dealt with by those specially versed in
the new science of papyrology. The Ptolemaic papyri were therefore read, partly by
Mr. Edgar Lobel (who dealt with the Petrie collection) and partly by Professor Jouguet
of Lille, those of the Roman period by Professor Martin of Geneva. Mr. H. Idris Bell of
the British Museum has supplied valuable notes on recent papyrological publications and
on unedited documents in the British Museum Collection.The first part of Preisigke's Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden appeared after the sheets of Part I had been printed off, but has been used for Addenda. For the vocabulary of the
Inscriptions little could be done by the editor except to revise the existing references
to Boeckh's Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum-no light task, seeing that so many of the
stones have been re-examined and may be studied in improved texts-and to supplement
these corrected citations by illustrations from collections such as those of DittenbergerThe appearance of a third edition of the Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, completed in 1924, has necessitated the alteration of a large number of references. The pitfalls which beset the path of the lexicographer may be exemplified by the fact that on the first revision the word ἀπόπλωσις was illustrated by SIG
2929.127, and this was altered by the concordance-table to SIG 3685.127: fortunately it was discovered in time that the word had disappeared in the later text!
or Michel or the Griechische Dialektinschriften, with the aid of Herwerden's Lexicon
Suppletorium, a work unfortunately marred by constant inaccuracy of reference, which
it is charitable to ascribe to lack of the minute care required in lexicographical proofreading.
I was therefore compelled to invoke the aid of Mr. M. N. Tod, to whom I owe an
incalculable debt for his services in this field. Mr. Tod has for several years read with
an eye to the improvement of the Lexicon every epigraphical publication which has
appeared, such for example as the later volumes of the Inscriptiones Graecae, Cagnat's
Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes, the Tituli Asiae Minoris, and the special
publications of the inscriptions of Delphi, Ephesus, Magnesia, Miletus, and Priene, and
has excerpted the whole of the periodical literature in which inscriptions are to be found,
so that it is hard to believe that any new material of real importance which has accrued
since 1911 can have escaped his methodical scrutiny. I have also received help in
epigraphical matters from Professor M. Cary and Miss C. A. Hutton.
Turning to Literature proper, it soon became clear that while the references to Plato and Aristotle needed careful revision and some amplification,Bonitz's Index to Aristotle and Ast's Lexicon Platonicum are no longer all-sufficing guides. Such words as μορυχώτερον (which should be read in Arist. Metaph. 987a10) and τεράμων (which there is reason to think once stood in the text of Pl. Sph. 221a, though it is not mentioned by Burnet) are addenda. the terminology of the later schools of Philosophy had never been adequately treated by lexicographers. Neither Usener's Epicurea nor von Arnim's Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta possesses an index; and Mr. (now Professor) J. L. Stocks generously undertook to remedy this defect, and to supply me with a vocabulary of the important technical terms of the Stoic and Epicurean schools (including in his survey of the latter such later works as the tracts or other remains of Philodemus, Polystratus, Demetrius Lacon, Diogenianus, and Diogenes of Oenoanda). Unfortunately his work was interrupted by the Great War, and on his return from service Mr. Stocks found himself unable to work up the material which he had collected within the
necessary limits of time. His notes on Stoic terminology were therefore transferred to Mr. A. C. Pearson, who carried the work a stage further, but found, after his appointment to the Regius Professorship of Greek at Cambridge, that he would not have time to complete it. Professor E. V. Arnold of Bangor, who is retiring from his post, hopes to find the leisure necessary for this much-needed work.
In dealing with the vocabulary of Epicurus and his school Mr. Stocks found that for an adequate treatment it would be necessary to obtain access to the transcripts of the fragments of the περὶ φύσεως and other writings made by Wilhelm Crönert and used by him in his revision of Passow's Lexicon, of which more will be said presently. Crönert (who had spent some time in England as a prisoner of war in 1917-19) very kindly acceded to a request which I made to him at the suggestion of von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and generously placed his transcripts at the disposal of Mr. Stocks, who visited him in Germany and made full use of this valuable material.
The peculiar vocabulary of the later Platonists has not hitherto received the attention which it deserves in Lexica; it is worthy of note that even in the seventh edition (1883) Liddell and Scott stated that the word μετεμψύχωσις (which is absent from the Paris Thesaurus and appears in Rost and Palm with the note ' Clem.Al. (?)') 'seems to be of no authority', though in the eighth edition an example of its use is cited from Proclus' Commentary on the Republic of Plato. As a matter of fact, this word can be quoted from ten authors besides Proclus.D. S. 10. 6, Gal. 4. 763, Alex. Aphr. de An. 27. 18, Porph. Abst. 4. 16, Herm. ap. Stob. 1. 49. 69 (tit.), Sallust. 20, Hieronym. Ep. 124. 4, Theol. Ar. 40, Serv. ad Verg. Aen. 3. 68, Sch. Iamb. Protr. 14. Professor Burnet, who in his edition of the Phaedo drew attention to some of these passages, added: ‘Hippolytus, Clement and other Christian writers say μετενσωμάτωσις (“reincarnation”) which is accurate but cumbrous’; but the implication that this word belongs to Patristic Greek is misleading. It is found in Plotinus and in later Platonists such as Hierocles and Proclus. Again, such a characteristic use as that of ἄτοπος in the philosophical sense of 'non-spatial' has escaped lexicographers. In dealing with this branch of literature I have received help from various scholars, notably Professor A. E. Taylor; and the late Mr. M. G. Davidson read the Enneads of Plotinus, the abstruse work of Damascius περὶ ἀρχῶν, and other treatises. The extant commentaries on the works of Aristotle of course belong to this school of thought, and Mr. W. D. Ross kindly undertook to supply notes on their vocabulary with the aid of the excellent indices of the Berlin edition and with the collaboration of certain of the Oxford translators;Two of these, Mr. Erwin Webster and Mr. Gibson, lost their lives in the Great War. the bulk of this work, however, fell upon his own shoulders.
Another branch of literature demanding special study was that of the magical and mystical writings-the Corpus Hermeticum, the magical papyri, the Tabellae Defixionum, and such like. This field was carefully worked over by Mr. Walter Scott, whose notes dealt very fully with the difficult words often found in these sources.
For the New Testament the intensive study of theologians has done great things in recent times, and the results of their labours are readily accessible; for the ordinary purposes of revision such Lexica as those of Ebeling and Zorell are generally sufficient; while for the illustration of Biblical usage from Hellenistic and later Greek we have a most valuable aid in Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary of the Greek Testament which (within its natural limits) may almost be regarded as a Lexicon of the κοινή as a whole. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to Professor Milligan for supplying advance proofs of the Vocabulary, the fifth part of which has just been published. Prof. A. H. McNeile and the Rev. A. Llewellyn Davies have advised me in matters relating to the LXX, Hexapla, etc.
Turning to post-classical Greek literature in general, help was received from various scholars (amongst whom may be named Mr. Ronald Burn and Mr. C. E. Freeman, who excerpted several of the less familiar writers), but such merits as the new edition may
possess in virtue of largely increased illustration and more accurate interpretation of the ancient texts will in the main be due to the self-effacing and monumental labours of Mr. Herbert W. Greene, sometime Fellow of Magdalen. Amongst the materials placed at my disposal when I began my editorial work in 1911 were twenty-four volumes of notes compiled by Mr. Greene as contributions to the Lexicography of authors mainly (though not by any means entirely) of post-Alexandrian date, including Lucian, the Anthology, all the later Epic poets, the Scriptores Erotici, Aelian, Philostratus, and others. From that time onwards Mr. Greene has not ceased to read and excerpt the remains of later Greek literature, including the works of practically every non-technical writer of importance from Polybius to Procopius. The twenty-four volumes have grown to nearly eighty, and many of the notes which they contain are elaborate dissertations constituting an important contribution to Classical Scholarship. Valuable aid has also been received from Professor W. A. Goligher, who read the minor Greek historians, Mr. J. M. Edmonds, who supplied a vocabulary of the Greek Lyric poets, Mr. J. H. A. Hart, who is compiling an index verborum to Philo, Professor A. W. Mair and Mr. M. T. Smiley, whose notes on Callimachus have been of great use, and other scholars, such as Professors J. A. Platt, A. Souter, R. L. Dunbabin, and W. L. Lorimer, Mr. T. W. Allen, Mr. A. H. Smith, Mr. G. Middleton, and the late Mr. G. E. Underhill, to all of whom special thanks are due. The advice of Mr. Edgar Lobel has been constantly sought and freely given, especially in regard to the remains of Early Lyric poetry and the ancient lexicographers.
The procedure of revision was briefly as follows. At the outset the Clarendon Press supplied a paste-up of the eighth edition in columns, and the first step was to note in the margin the essential alterations of the text and the most important additions. After this had been done, a second paste-up in columns was made, and the marginalia of the first were fused with newly accumulated material and recast in a form suitable for publication; but it was found that the copy thus produced would present great difficulties to the printer, and that a clean copy based on the use of short sections of Liddell and Scott's text treated as a proof was required. When I became Camden Professor at the beginning of 1920 it became necessary to provide me with assistance in my editorial work, and Mr. R. McKenzie of Trinity College (now Fereday Fellow of St. John's College) was appointed AssistantEditor by the Delegates of the Press. Apart from his arduous labour inputting my drafts into final shape and in arranging and working in a large mass of accumulated material, Mr. McKenzie has been able to render inestimable service to the Lexicon on the philological side. After careful consideration it was decided that etymological information should be reduced to a minimum. A glance at Boisacq's Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque will show that the speculations of etymologists are rarely free from conjecture; and the progress of comparative philology since the days of G. Curtius (whose Griechische Etymologie was the main source drawn upon by Liddell and Scott) has brought about the clearance of much rubbish but little solid construction. Some assured results, however, have been attained, and the etymologies presented in the text have in almost every case been approved by Mr. McKenzie.
The space required for the incorporation of new material without an excessive increase in the bulk of the Lexicon has been saved partly by abbreviations and compendious methods of printing, partly by certain limitations of scope. Liddell and Scott, though they originally intended their work to be a Lexicon of Classical Greek,This appears from letters written in 1877 by Dean Liddell to Mr. Falconer Madan (who kindly placed them at my disposal) with reference to J. E. B. Mayor's well-known articles on Greek Lexicography in the Journal of Philology. admitted a number of words from Ecclesiastical and Byzantine writers, for many of which no reference was given except the symbols Eccl.' and 'Byz.' After due consideration it has been decided to exclude both Patristic and Byzantine literature from the purview of the present edition. It would
have manifestly been impossible to include more than a small and haphazard selection of words and quotations from these literatures, which would therefore have had to be treated quite differently from the remains of Classical Greek, where (it may be hoped) sufficient illustration has been given of the vocabulary and usage of all writers of importance, accompanied by precise and easily verifiable references. There is, moreover, in preparation a Lexicon of Patristic Greek (including Christian poetry and inscriptions) under the editorship of Dr. Darwell Stone, which will, it is hoped, be printed when the publication of the present work is concluded.Christian authors are of course frequently cited as the source of classical quotations, and such treatises as those of Porphyry and Julian Against the Christians are reconstructed from Patristic writings. For the Byzantine vocabulary we shall have to wait for the Modern Greek Lexicon to which allusion has already been made, but it will hardly be denied that some time-limit was called for, and this has been fixed roughly at A. D. 600 in order to include the historians and poets of the reign of Justinian, though such writers as the scholiasts, grammarians, and others who preserve the fragmentary remains of ancient scholarship must naturally be taken into account in their own province.
The present volume will not challenge comparison in scale with the revision of Passow's Wörterbuch der griechischen Sprache by Wilhelm Crönert, of which three parts, extending as far as ἀνά, appeared in 1912-14. This monument of Herculean toil will, if and when it is completed (a consummation for which all lovers of learning will devoutly pray), bulk about three times as large as Liddell and Scott; in fact, this estimate may be exceeded if Crönert is able to carry out the plan foreshadowed in the preface to his second part, where he looks forward to the gradual expansion of his work as it proceeds (after the manner of Passow) by means of a fuller treatment of post-Classical Greek. Cronert's work has been criticized by Kretschmer,In Glotta vi pp. 300 f. who regards it as too ambitious in scope and unlikely to be completed within a reasonable period of time, and would prefer a Lexicon on a somewhat smaller scale as a preliminary to the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae which must remain for a long while to come a pious aspiration. It may be hoped that the present work will do something to supply this need, and that it may be found to possess some compensating advantages denied to the larger Lexicon of Crönert, such as the provision of exact references for every word cited from an author and fuller and more representative quotations from the later literature, e.g. from such authors as Plotinus.A comparison of the art. ἀμφίβιος in Crönert-Passow with that of the present work will illustrate the difference of method. Crönert, on the other hand, gives the lexicographical tradition of the ancient grammarians very fully. For this it would not have been possible to find room; nor, indeed, has it yet been thoroughly sifted and critically edited. The deaths of Wentzel, Leopold Cohn, and Egenolff, and the migration of Bethe and Reitzenstein to more succulent pastures, have brought the two great enterprises of the firm of Teubner-the Corpus Grammaticorum Graecorum and that of the ancient Lexica—to a premature end. De Stefani's edition of the Etymologicum Gudianum is, however, in course of appearing, and it is understood that Drachmann is editing the remains of the Glossary of' Cyril' (see Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie xii 175).
My best thanks are due to those scholars who are generously devoting their time to the reading of the proof-sheets and the verification of references, especially to the authors originally read by them for the purposes of the Lexicon. Some of these have already been named, such as Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer, Professors D'Arcy Thompson, A. E. Taylor, A. C. Pearson, and J. L. Stocks, Mr. Herbert Greene, Mr. Tod, Dr. Withington, Mr. Ross, and Mr. F. W. Hall. Lieut.-Col. Farquharson's scrutiny of the quotations from Plato and Aristotle is producing important results; and Messrs. C. and G. M. Cookson, Mr. W. W. How, and the Rev. W. Evans are doing valuable work in maintaining the standard of accuracy. The Editor's task is naturally heavy, especially in view of the fact that the progress of scholarship tends to make the text originally drafted for the Press out of date or to bring fresh material to light. Such publications as Ulrich Wilcken's Urkunden der
Ptolemäerzeit furnish more accurate readings of Papyri and necessitate changes or deletions,For example, ἀντιπατάσσω was cited by me from PPar. 40, but the reference was deleted from the proof when it was found that in UPZ 12 Wilcken read ὠνηλάται ὄντες for ἀντιπατάσσοντες! and I must place on record my gratitude to Professor Wilcken for kindly undertaking to verify and correct references to documents in the yet unpublished portions of his work,This should cause little inconvenience to the user of the Lexicon, as Part I of UPZ contains concordance-tables for the whole work. as also to Mr. J. U. Powell for permitting me to use and refer to the proofs of his Collectanea Alexandrina, shortly about to appear. Professor J. Bidez and Mr. A. D. Knox kindly sent me advanced proofs of the editions of the Epistles of Julian and of Herodas in which they have collaborated. The care and accuracy shown by the Press readers have been altogether exceptional.
It has, I hope, been made abundantly clear that the new edition of Liddell and Scott's Lexicon is in reality the work of many hands, and represents a great sacrifice of leisure and an earnest devotion to Greek learning on the part of the present generation of scholars, and that not in this country alone. I would fain hope that in the world of science at least (which has, or should have, no frontiers) it may further in some small degree the restoration of the comity of nations.H. STUART JONES.
The Delegates of the Oxford University Press, in issuing the tenth and last part of the revised edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon, wish to express their deep gratitude to all who have assisted in carrying this undertaking to a conclusion. They greatly regret that neither the Editor Sir Henry Stuart Jones, who died on 29 June 1939, nor the Assistant Editor Mr. Roderick McKenzie, who died on 24 June 1937, survived to see the work completed. McKenzie saw the main body of the work to its end, and himself wrote the long article on ὡς; Sir Henry was at work on the Addenda and Corrigenda up to within a fortnight of his death and had almost put them into shape. The work done by these two men could not be overrated. Sir Henry was the ideal Editor; his wide range of knowledge and his exact scholarship, his persistent devotion to his task even in periods of ill health, his tactful assiduity in consulting experts and his skill in co-ordinating their results, gave the work at once its consistency and its elasticity. McKenzie, to whom fell the arrangement, in their ultimate form, of most of the articles, provided a fine complement; his great knowledge of comparative philology, his laborious accuracy, and his tireless patience, gave his contribution inestimable value.
In the Preface published in 1925 Stuart Jones sketched the history of the work up to the publication of ἀποβαίνω, and recorded the signal services given by many scholars to the work in its formative stages. To that nothing need now be added. But Jones went on to thank the scholars who were ' generously devoting their time to the reading of proof-sheets and the verification of references'. It is important that the nature of this work should be understood. The procedure adopted, when work was resumed after the Four Years' War, was this: McKenzie wrote out Jones's corrections on a 'paste-up' of the previous edition. This was the 'copy'; and fresh material was to some extent incorporated in it from time to time. But as succeeding sections of the alphabet were revised and set up in type, proofs were sent to the volunteer helpers, whose labours, in the event, went far beyond mere verification; in their hands and the editors' the work was very largely recast. The method has obvious advantages, and the peculiar excellences of the revised lexicon owe much to its adoption. But inevitably it prolonged the process of gestation. The period of publication, 1925-40, was actually longer than the period of copy-writing, 1911-24, even although the earlier period was interrupted by the war, and in the later period there were two editors instead of one.
Of those who were named in the original Preface as having embarked on the labour of proof-reading, some are dead: notably Sir William T. Thiselton-Dyer, A. C. Pearson, and Herbert Greene.Greene's notebooks (see the 1925 Preface, p. x) are in the Bodleian. Others have lived to see the work to its end. These, and not these alone, have more than doubled the debt of gratitude which, fifteen years ago, Jones could not 'find words adequate to express'.
Unhappily neither editor lived to prepare a final list of acknowledgements. McKenzie died suddenly in 1937. Jones, though he lived to see the end in sight, left no material for the brief 'epilogue' which it had been agreed he should furnish. It would be impossible now to produce a complete or balanced account of the labours of the proof-readers and verifiers without undertaking inquiries which the circumstances of the time make difficult. The list which follows does not attempt discrimination. Special mention must, however, be made of the prolonged and arduous labours of Mr. M. N. Tod of Oriel College on the inscriptions; of Lt.-Col. A. S. L. Farquharson of University College on Plato and Aristotle;
of Dr. E. T. Withington of Balliol College on the medical writers; of Sir D'Arcy Thompson of St. Andrews on natural history; and of the late Sir Thomas Heath on mathematics and astrology.
The proofs were read also, in whole or in part, by the following: Mr. P. V. M. Benecke of Magdalen College; Mr. F. H. Colson of St. John's College, Cambridge; Mr. Christopher Cookson of Magdalen College; Prof. E. S. Forster of Sheffield University; Mr. E. T. D. Jenkins of University College, Aberystwyth; Mr. Edgar Lobel of the Queen's College; Mr. W. L. Lorimer of St. Andrews; Prof. J. F. Mountford of Liverpool University; Mr. Maurice Platnauer of Brasenose College; Sir David Ross, Provost of Oriel College; Prof. A. E. Taylor of Edinburgh; and by the late F. W. Hall, A. E. Housman, A. C. Pearson, J. A. Smith, and J. L. Stocks. As press reader from the beginning of the work Mr. T. Bruce has made a special contribution to its accuracy.
The Addenda and Corrigenda issued with the several parts have been greatly enlarged, and are now consolidated in a single list. Of these, the proofs were read by Dr. H. Idris Bell of the British Museum, Prof. G. R. Driver of Magdalen College, and Prof. Paul Maas of Königsberg, as well as by some of those who have been named above.
The Addenda owe much to the reviews and private communications of Dr. Ernest Harrison of Trinity College, Cambridge; of Prof. Maas; of Prof. R. Pfeiffer of Munich (it is noted with pleasure that both Prof. Maas and Prof. Pfeiffer are now resident in Oxford); of Prof. K. Latte of Hamburg; of Prof. W. Schmid of Tübingen; of Herr Pfarrer P. Katz of Coblenz, and of many other scholars.
Both in the Addenda and in the main work the principle of anonymity has been applied to original contributions that appear first in the Lexicon, and it was the intention of the Editors that those who made them should be free at any later time to claim their own discoveries.
Miss Margaret Alford, who bears an honoured name, helped Sir Henry Stuart Jones in the compilation of the Addenda, and since his death, with the collaboration of Professor Maas in the final stages, has performed the laborious duty of preparing the Addenda for Part 10 and of correcting proofs of the whole.
It is impossible now, as it was impossible in 1925, to name all who have contributed to the improvement of the great lexicon. The sacrifice of leisure, and the devotion to Greek learning, of which Jones then wrote, have been nobly sustained by a generation of scholars, and the monument of unselfish industry is at last complete.
The lists which follow are designed to make it easy for the reader to trace the quotations given in the Lexicon. The general list of abbreviations (V) gives references, where needed, to one or other of the lists (I-IV) in which the expansion will be found; but the abbreviated names of authors have not been inserted in List V unless their alphabetical position in List I is different from that of the full name (e.g. A. = Aeschylus). List V also contains the expansion of all abbreviations used without explanation in List I. The names of authors are in general printed in roman type, the titles of their works (given in alphabetical order under the author's name) in italics, which are also used for the titles of collections and periodical publications.
The list of authors (I) is not intended to furnish a bibliography of Greek Literature, but to indicate the editions which have been followed in respect of the form of reference, i.e. pagination, numeration of books, chapters, sections, lines, fragments, &c.; where the form adopted in the Lexicon differs from that of the edition cited (e.g. where the pagination of an earlier editor is used, but may be found in the margin of a later edition) the fact is stated. It will be understood that the reading adopted in the edition cited is not necessarily given (or referred to) in the Lexicon. For the convenience of readers a few editions of the fragments of individual authors have been named in the list, even when the remains of the author have been cited from the sources of the quotations. Where no abbreviation follows the author's name the full name is used in the Lexicon, and where no date is given it is to be understood that evidence to determine it is lacking. No attempt has in general been made to indicate which of the works attributed to an author are to be regarded as spurious.
In the description of the editions used ' OCT' is added to show that the work is one of the Oxford Classical Texts (Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis); similarly 'T.' indicates the smaller Teubner Series (Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana), ' D.' the Didot editions, and 'Loeb' the Loeb Classical Library.
Where the works of an author have been divided into recognized chapters and sections these are usually given, and the orators are (when possible) cited by speech and section; but references by page are given in accordance with custom to Aristotle (Bekker), the commentators on Aristotle (Berlin edition), Plato (Stephanus), Philo (Mangey), Plutarch's Moralia (Wyttenbach), Galen (Kühn, except for certain recently edited treatises), Athenaeus (Casaubon), Julian (Spanheim), and Themistius (Hardouin). Page-references to other authors are in general introduced by 'p.' and followed by the initial of the editor's name; if not, the facts are stated in List I. The symbol' Fr.' (= Fragment) is generally used where the remains of an author consist partly of complete works and partly of quotations ; a simple number denotes a fragment drawn from one of the collections indicated in List I. Where supplementary or recent but uncompleted collections are quoted, the initial of the editor (e.g. ' D.' for Demiańczuk, 'J.' for Jacoby) is added to the number of the fragment. The annotations of ancient commentators are cited either by reference to the passage discussed or as substantive works: thus 'Ulp. ad D.' followed by reference to speech and section, but 'Did. in D.' cited by column and line of papyrus.
Abydenus Historicus [Abyd.]
Anatolian Studies = Anatolian Studies presented to Sir W. M. Ramsay, Manchester 1923. Arangio-Ruiz et Olivieri Inscr. Gr. = V. Arangio-Ruiz et A. Olivieri, Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae et infimae Italiae ad ius pertinentes, Milan 1925. BMus.Inscr. = Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum, Oxford 1874-1916. Baillet Inscr. des tombeaux des rois = J. Baillet, Inscriptions grecques et latines des tombeaux des rois à Thèbes, Le Caire 1920-23. Benndorf-Niemann Reisen in Lykien = O. Benndorf & G. Niemann, Reisen in Lykien und Karien, Vienna 1884. Buckler Anat. Studies = Anatolian Studies presented to W. H. Buckler, ed. W. M. Calder & J. Keil, Manchester 1939. CIG = A. Boeckh, Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, Berlin 1828-77. CIJud. = Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaicarum, ed. J.-B. Frey: vol. i (Europe), Rome 1936. CIL = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Berlin 1862-. Chron.Lind. = Chronicle of Lindos, ed. Chr. Blinkenberg, Die Lin- dische Tempelchronik, Bonn 1915; ed. F. Jacoby, FGrH ii p. 1005. Corinth = Corinth, results of excavations conducted by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1929-; vol. viii Part i, Greek Inscriptions, ed. B. D. Meritt, 1931. Cumont Fouilles de Doura-Europos = F. Cumont, Fouilles de Doura- Europos (1922-3), Paris 1926. Dain Inscr. du Louvre = A. Dain, Inscriptions grecques du musée du Louvre: Les textes inédits, Paris 1933. Delph.3(1),(2), . . = Fouilles de Delphes, tome iii: Épigraphie. Paris 1909-. (École française d'Athènes.) Demitsas Μακεδ. = M. G. Demitsas, Ἡ Μακεδονία κτλ., vol. i (all published), Athens 1896. Dessau ILS = H. Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, Berlin 1892-1916. Dura1 Dura2 Dura3 Dura4 Dura5 Dura6 = The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Preliminary Report of First (Second . . . ) Season of Work, ed. P. V. C. Bauer, M. I. Rostovtzeff, A. R. Bellinger, and others, Yale University Press 1929-. Durrbach Choix d'inscrr. de Délos = F. Durrbach, Choix d'inscrip- tions de Délos, Paris 1921. Edict.Diocl. = Edictum Diocletiani, ed. T. Mommsen & H. Blümner, Der Maximaltarif des Diocletian, Berlin 1893; suppl. CIL iii pp. 1926 ff., 2208 ff., 232857 ff.: cited where possible by Momm- sen's chaps. & lines, recently found portions by place of discovery (Aeg. = Aegira; Clit. = Clitor; Delph. = Delphi; Troez. = Troezen); Geronthr. = IG5(1)1115; Gyth. = 5(1)1148. Eph.Epigr. = Ephemeris Epigraphica, Corporis Inscriptionum Lati- narum Supplementum, Berlin 1872-. Ephes.2,3, . . = Forschungen in Ephesos, veröffentlicht vom Oesterrei- chischen Archaeologischen Institute . . Bde. 2, 3, Vienna 1912, 1923; 4(1), 1932; 4(2), Baden bei Wien 1937. Epigr.Gr. = G. Kaibel, Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta, Berlin 1878. Foed.Delph.Pell. = Foedus inter Delphos et Pellanenses, ed. B. Haussoullier, Traité entre Delphes et Pellana, Paris 1917; Schwyzer (q.v.) No. 3282. GDI = Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften, ed. H. Collitz et alii, Göttingen 1884-1915. Gerasa = Gerasa, City of the Decapolis, ed. C. H. Kraeling, New Haven, Connecticut, 1938. Haussoullier Milet = B. Haussoullier, Études sur l'histoire de Milet et du Didymeion, Paris 1902. Heuzey-Daumet Mission Arch. de Macédoine = L. Heuzey et H. Daumet, Mission Archéologique de Macédoine, Paris 1876. Histria = V. Párvan, Histria, Part iv, Bucarest 1916; Part vii, Bucarest 1923. IG = Inscriptiones Graecae. vol. i = Inscriptiones Atticae anno Euclidis vetustiores, ed. A. Kirchhoff, 1873: Supplementa, indices 1877, 1887, 1891 [ = Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, vol. i et vol. iv pars i fasc. i-iii]. IG12 = IG vol. i ed. minor, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 1924. vol. ii = Inscriptiones Atticae aetatis quae est inter Euclidis annum et Augusti tempora, ed. U. Koehler [5 parts, 1877, 1883, 1888, 1893 (indices by J. Kirchner), 1895 (supplementa) = Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, vol. ii partes i-iv et vol. iv pars ii]. vol. iii = Inscriptiones Atticae aetatis Romanae, ed W. Ditten- berger, pars i 1878, pars ii 1882, pars iii (v. Tab. Defix.) 1897 [ = Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, vol. iii partes i, ii, et Appendix]. IG22 = Voluminum ii et iii editio minor, ed. J. Kirchner, pars i fasc. i 1913, fasc. ii 1916; pars ii fasc. i (1370-1695) 1927, fasc. ii (1696-2788) 1931; pars iii fasc. i (2789-5219) 1935. vol. iv = Inscriptiones Argolidis, ed. M. Fraenkel, 1902 [ = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Peloponnesi et insularum vicinarum, vol. i]. IG42 = Voluminis iv editio minor, fasc. i = Inscriptiones Epi- dauri, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 1929. vol. v fasc. i = Inscriptiones Laconiae et Messeniae, ed. W. Kolbe, 1913; fasc. ii = Inscriptiones Arcadiae, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 1913. vol. vii = Inscriptiones Megaridis et Boeotiae, ed. W. Dittenberger, 1892 [ = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Graeciae Septentrio- nalis, vol. i]. vol. ix pars i = Inscriptiones Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarna- niae, insularum maris Ionii, ed. W. Dittenberger, 1897 [ = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Graeciae Septentrionalis, vol. iii pars i]; pars ii = Inscriptiones Thessaliae, ed. O. Kern, 1908. IG92 = Voluminis ix partis i editio minor, fasc. i = Inscriptiones Aetoliae, ed. G. Klaffenbach, 1932. vol. xi = Inscriptiones Deli: fasc. ii, ed. F. Dürrbach, 1912; fasc. 3 cited as Inscr. Délos (q.v.); fasc. iv, ed. P. Roussel, 1914. vol. xii = Inscriptiones insularum maris Aegaei praeter Delum: fasc. i, Inscriptiones Rhodi, Chalces, Carpathi cum Saro, Casi, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 1895. fasc. ii, Inscriptiones Lesbi, Nesi, Tenedi, ed. W. Paton, 1899. fasc. iii, Inscriptiones Symes, Teutlussae, Teli, Nisyri, Astypa- laeae, Anaphes, Therae et Therasiae, Pholegandri, Meli, Cimoli, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 1898; Supplementa, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen 1904. fasc. v, Inscriptiones Cycladum: pars i, Inscriptiones Cycladum praeter Tenum, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 1903; pars ii, Inscriptiones Teni insulae, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertringen, 1909. fasc. vii, Inscriptiones Amorgi et insularum vicinarum, ed. J. Delamarre, 1908. fasc. viii, Inscriptiones insularum maris Thracici, ed. C. Fred- rich, 1909. fasc. ix, Inscriptiones Euboeae, ed. E. Ziebarth, 1915. vol. xiv = Inscriptiones Siciliae et Italiae additis Galliae His- paniae Britanniae Germaniae inscriptionibus, ed. G. Kaibel, 1890. IGRom. = Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes, ed. R. Cagnat et alii, Paris, vol. i 1911, iii 1906, iv 1927. IPE = Inscriptiones orae septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, ed. B. Laty- shev, Petersburg 1885-1901: 12 = vol. i, second edition, 1916. Inscr.Cos = The Inscriptions of Cos, ed. W. R. Paton & E. L. Hicks, Oxford 1891. Inscr.Cret. = Inscriptiones Creticae opera et consilio Friderici Halbherr collectae. I. Tituli Cretae mediae praeter Gortynios. Curavit Margarita Guarducci. Rome 1935. Inscr.Cypr. = Cyprian Inscriptions in O. Hoffmann, Die griechischen Dialekte, vol. i, Göttingen 1891. Inscr.Délos = Nos. 290-371, 372-509, ed. F. Durrbach, Paris 1926, 1929 (Acad. des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres). [The numeration is continued from IG11(2).] Nos. 1400-96 [an interval is left after the nos. of IG11(4)] ed. F. Durrbach & P. Roussel, 1935. Nos. 1497-2879 (2 pts.) ed. P. Roussel & M. Launey, 1937. Inscr. gr. et lat. de la Syrie = Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie; I. Commagène et Cyrrhestique, ed. L. Jalabert & R. Mouterde, Paris 1929. Inscr.Magn. = Die Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander, ed. O. Kern, Berlin 1900. Inscr.Mus.Alex. = E. Breccia, Iscrizioni greche e latine (Catal. gen. des antiq. égypt. du musée d' Alexandrie, 57), 1911. Inscr.Olymp. = Olympia: die Ergebnisse der . . . Ausgrabung: Text- band v, Die Inschriften, ed. W. Dittenberger & K. Purgold, Berlin 1896. Inscr.Perg. = Die Inschriften von Pergamon (in Altertümer von Pergamon viii), ed. M. Fraenkel, Berlin 1890-1895. Inscr.Prien. = Die Inschriften von Priene, ed. F. Hiller von Gaertrin- gen, Berlin 1906. Keil-Premerstein Erster (zweiter, dritter) Bericht = J. Keil & A. von Premerstein, Bericht über eine (eine zweite, eine dritte) Reise in Lydien (Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie, phil.-hist. Klasse, LIII, 2. Abh., LIV, 2. Abh., LVII, 1. Abh.), Vienna 1908, 1911, 1914. LF, LW = Philippe Le Bas, W. H. Wadding??n & P. Foucart, Voyage Archéologique en Grèce et en Asie Mineure, Paris 1847-70. Leg.Gort. = Leges Gortynensium (GDI 4991, Schwyzer 179). Leg.Sacr. = Leges Graecorum Sacrae, ed. J. de Prott & L. Ziehen, Leipzig fasc. i 1896, fasc. ii (1) 1906. MacDowell Stamped Objects from Seleucia = R. H. MacDowell, Stamped & Inscribed Objects from Seleucia on the Tigris (Univ. of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series, vol. xxxvi), Ann Arbor 1935. Maiuri Nuova Silloge = A. Maiuri, Nuova Silloge Epigrafica di Rodi e Cos, Firenze 1925. MAMA = Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua, vol. i, ed. W. M. Calder, Manchester-London 1928 (Publications of the American Society for Archaeological Research in Asia Minor); vol. iii, ed. J. Keil & A. Wilhelm, 1931; vol. iv, ed. W. H. Buckler, W. M. Calder, W. K. C. Guthrie, 1933; vol. v, ed. C. W. M. Cox & A. Cameron, 1937; vol. vi, ed. W. H. Buckler & W. M. Calder, 1939 (iii-vi Manchester). Marm.Par. = Marmor Parium (IG12(5).444) ed. F. Jacoby, Das Marmor Parium, Berlin 1904, and FGrH ii p. 992. Mél.Bidez = Mélanges Bidez (Annuaire de l' Institut de philologie et d'histoire orientales, tome ii), Brussels 1934. Mél.Glotz = Mélanges Gustave Glotz, Paris 1932. Mél.Navarre = Mélanges offerts à M. Octave Navarre par ses élèves et ses amis, Toulouse 1935. Michel = C. Michel, Recueil d'inscriptions grecques, Brussels 1900: Supplements i, ii, Brussels 1912, 1927. Milet. = Milet. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899, herausg. von Theodor Wiegand (Königliche Museen zu Berlin), 1906-. Milet3 = Milet Bd.1 Heft iii; for other parts Band and Heft are given. Milet.6,7 = Sechster (siebenter) vorläufiger Bericht über die in Milet und Didyma unternommenen Ausgrabungen, Abh. Berl. Akad. 1908 Anhang I, 1911 Anh. I. Mon.Anc.Gr. = Monumenti Ancyrani versio Graeca (Res Gestae Divi Augusti, ed. E. Diehl3, Bonn 1918). Mon.Piot = Monuments et mémoires publiés par la fondation Piot, Paris 1894-. Mueller-Bees = N. Mueller & N. A. Bees, Die Inschriften der jüdi- schen Katakombe am Monteverde zu Rom, Leipzig 1919. Myres Cesnola Coll. = J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collec- tion of Antiquities from Cyprus, New York 1914. Naukratis = Naukratis, Pt. i by [Sir] W. M. Flinders Petrie, London 1886, Pt. ii by E. A. Gardner, 1888 (Egypt Exploration Fund, Memoirs iii, vi). OGI = Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, ed. W. Dittenberger, Leipzig 1903-5. Pelekides Thessalonica = S. Pelekides, Ἀπὸ τὴν πολιτεία καὶ τὴν κοινωνία τῆς ἀρχαίας Θεσσαλονίκης, Salonika 1934. Petersen-Luschan Reisen in Lykien = E. Petersen & F. von Luschan, Reisen in Lykien, Milyas und Kibyratis, Vienna 1889. Princeton Exp.Inscr. = Publications of the Princeton University Ar- chaeological Expeditions to Syria in 1904-5 and 1909: Division III, Greek and Latin Inscriptions, Leyden, Section A by E. Littmann, D. Magie, & D. R. Stuart, 1921; Section B by W. K. Prentice, 1922. Puchstein Epigr.Gr. = O.Puchstein, Epigrammata Graeca in Aegypto reperta, Strassburg 1880. Ramsay Cities and Bishoprics = [Sir] W. M. Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, Oxford 1895-7. Ramsay Studies in Eastern Rom. Prov. = Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire, ed. [Sir] W. M. Ramsay, Aberdeen 1906. Robert Collection Froehner = Collection Froehner (Bibliothèque nationale. Département des médailles et des antiques), i. In- scriptions grecques, ed. L. Robert, Paris 1936. Robert Ét. Anat. = L. Robert, Études Anatoliennes, Paris 1937 (Études orientales publiées par l'institut français d'archéologie de Stamboul No. v). Roussel Cultes Égyptiens = P. Roussel, Les Cultes égyptiens à Délos, Nancy 1916. Ruppel T. von Dakke = W. Ruppel, Der Tempel von Dakke, vol. 3, Cairo 1930 (Service des Antiquités d' Égypte). Rüsch = E. Rüsch, Grammatik der delphischen Inschriften i, Berlin 1914 (Epigraphischer Anhang, pp. 312-31). SIG = Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, ed. W. Dittenberger, editio tertia, Leipzig 1915-24. (SIG2 = editio altera, 1898-1901.) Sardis7(1) = Sardis, Publications of the American Society for the Excavation of Sardis, Vol. vii, Greek and Latin Inscriptions, Part I, by W. H. Buckler and D. M. Robinson, Leyden 1932. Schwyzer = E. Schwyzer, Dialectorum Graecarum Exempla epi- graphica potiora, Leipzig 1923. Stud.Pont. = Studia Pontica, Brussels 1903-: vol. iii Recueil des inscriptions grecques et latines du Pont et de l' Arménie, publ. par J. G. C. Anderson, F. Cumont, H. Grégoire, fasc. i (1910). Supp.Epigr. = Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, adjuvantibus P. Roussel, A. Salač, M. N. Tod, E. Ziebarth, ed. J. J. E. Hondius, Leyden 1923-. Swoboda Denkmäler = Denkmäler aus Lykaonien, Pamphylien und Isaurien, herausgegeben von H. Swoboda, J. Keil, und F. Knoll, Brünn etc., 1935. TAM = Tituli Asiae Minoris, vol. ii fasc. i, ed. E. Kalinka, Vicnna 1920; fasc. ii, 1930. Tab.Defix. = Defixionum Tabellae in Attica regione repertae, ed. R. Wuensch (IG3 pars iii). Tab.Defix.Aud. = Defixionum Tabellae quotquot innotuerunt, ed. A. Audollent, Paris 1904. Tab.Heracl. = Tabulae Heracleenses (IG14.645, Schwyzer 62-3). Test.Epict. = Testamentum Epictetae (IG12(3).330, Michel 1001, Schwyzer 227); cited by col. and line. Wiegand Mnemos. = Mnemosynon Theodor Wiegand dargebracht, Munich 1938. Wood Ephesus = J. T. Wood, Discoveries at Ephesus, London 1877.
BGU = Berliner griechische Urkunden (Ägyptische Urkunden aus den Königlichen Museen zu Berlin), Berlin 1895-. BKT = Berliner Klassikertexte, herausgegeben von der Generalver- waltung der Kgl. Museen zu Berlin, Berlin 1904-. Berichtigungsl. = Berichtigungsliste der griechischen Papyrusurkunden aus Ägypten: I. F. Preisigke, Hefte 1 & 2, Strassburg 1913; Hefte 3 & 4, Berlin & Leipzig 1922; II. F. Bilabel, Heidelberg 1931, 1933. Bilabel Ὀψαρτ. = F. Bilabel, Ὀψαρτυτικά und Verwandtes (Sitzungs- berichte d. Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Kl. 1919, 23. Abh.), Heidelberg 1920. CPHerm. = Corpus Papyrorum Hermopolitanorum i, ed. C. Wessely (Studien zur Paläogr. u. Papyruskunde v), Leipzig 1905. CPR = Corpus Papyrorum Raineri Archiducis Austriae, vol. i, Griechische Texte, ed. C. Wessely, Wien 1895; cf. PRain.(NS). Διηγήσεις Διηγήσεις di poemi di Callimaco in un papiro di Tebtynis, a cura di M. Norsa e G. Vitelli, Firenze 1934: cited by column and line; ed. A. Vogliano PUniv.Milan. i. 18. Frisk Bankakten = Bankakten aus dem Faijûm nebst anderen Ber- liner Papyri, ed. H. Frisk (Göteborgs Kungl. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar, femte följden, Ser.A. Band 2 No. 2), Göteborg 1931. Herc. (following an author's name) = Herculaneum papyri, cited by No. of papyrus and column or fragment from Herculanensium Voluminum quae supersunt, Collectio altera, Naples 1862-76, D. Bassi, Herculanensium Voluminum, Collectio tertia, fasc. i, Milan 1914, and other publications; 'Epicureus Herc. . . p. . . V.' refers to Epicuri et Epicureorum scripta . . , ed. A. Vogliano (v. I (Add.) s.v. Epicurus). Kapsomenakis = S. G. Kapsomenakis, Voruntersuchungen zu einer Grammatik der Papyri der nachchristlichen Zeit, Munich 1938. Meyer Ostr. = Ostraca in P.Meyer (q.v.). Mitteis Chr., Wilcken Chr. = L. Mitteis & U. Wilcken, Grundzüge und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde, Leipzig & Berlin 1912. Möller Pap.Berl.Mus. = S. Möller, Griechische Papyri aus dem Ber- liner Museum, Göteborg 1929. Ostr. = U. Wilcken, Griechische Ostraka aus Ägypten und Nubien, Leipzig & Berlin 1899. Ostr.Bodl. = J. G. Tait, Greek Ostraca in the Bodleian Library and other collections, I, London 1930 (cited by No. of part and No. of ostracon). Ostr.Mich. = L. Amundsen, Greek Ostraca in the University of Michigan Collection, Part I, Texts ( = University of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series, vol. xxxiv), Ann Arbor 1935. Ostr.Strassb. = Griechische und griechisch-demotische Ostraka der Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek zu Strassburg, ed. P. Viereck, Berlin 1923. Ostr.Wilbour = C. Préaux, Les ostraca grecs de la Collection Charles-Edwin Wilbour an Musee de Brooklyn, New York 1935. PAberd. = Catalogue of Greek & Latin papyri & ostraca in the pos- session of the University of Aberdeen, ed. E. G. Turner (Aberdeen Univ. Studies No. 116), 1939. PAlex. = Papyrus ptolémaïques du Musee d' Alexandrie, ed. G. Botti, Bull.Soc.Alex. First Series No. 2 (1899) p. 65. PAmh. = Amherst Papyri, ed. B. P. Grenfell & A. S. Hunt, 2 vols., London 1900-1; cited by No. of vol., papyrus, and line. PAntin. = the Antinoe Papyrus of Theocritus in Two Theocritus Papyri, ed. A. S. Hunt & J. Johnson, London 1930. PAvrom. = Parchments of the Parthian period from Avroman in Kurdistan, ed. E. H. Minns, JHS xxxv (1915) p. 22. PBaden = F. Bilabel, Veröffentlichungen aus den badischen Papyrus- Sammlungen, Heft 2 and Heft 4, Griechische Papyri, Heidelberg 1923, 1924. PBasel = Papyrusurkunden der öffentlichen Bibliothek der Universität zu Basel, I. Urkunden in griechischer Sprache, ed. E. Rabel (Abh. Gött. Gesellsch. Neue Folge, vol. xvi, No. 3), Berlin 1917. PBerl.Leihg. = Berliner Leihgabe griechischer Papyri, herausgegeben vom griechischen Seminar der Universität Uppsala durch T. Kalén, Uppsala 1932. PBerol. = Berlin Papyri, cited by inventory No. (PBerol. 6926, 7927v = B. Lavagnini, Eroticorum Graecorum Fragmenta Papyra- cea, Leipzig (T.) 1922, pp. 1ff., 21ff.). PBouriant = Les papyrus Bouriant, ed. P. Collart, Paris 1926. PBremen = U. Wilcken, Die Bremer Papyri (Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1936, Phil.-hist. Klasse No. 2), Berlin 1936. PCair. = Cairo Papyri cited by catalogue No. from B. P. Grenfell & A. S. Hunt, Greek Papyri, Catalogue général des Antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, vol. x, Nos. 10001-10869, Oxford 1903. PCair.Preis. = F. Preisigke, Griechische Urkunden des ägyptischen Museums zu Kairo (Schriften der wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Strassburg, IIeft 8), Strassburg 1911. PCair.Zen. = C. C. Edgar, Zenon Papyri, 4 vols. (Catal. gén. des Antiq. égypt. du Musée du Caire, 79) 1925-31: digits indicating 59(000) omitted in refs., thus 2 = 59002. PCornell = Greek Papyri in the Library of Cornell University, ed. W. L. Westermann & C. J. Kraemer, New York 1926. PEdgar = C. C. Edgar, Selected papyri from the archives of Zenon, Annales du Service des Antiquités de l' Égypte, Nos. 1-10 in vol. xviii (1918) pp. 159-82; Nos. 11-21, ib. pp. 224-44; Nos. 22- 36, vol. xix (1920) pp. 13-36; Nos. 37-48, ib. pp. 81-104; Nos. 49-54, vol. xx (1920) pp. 19-40; Nos. 55-64, ib. pp. 181-206; Nos. 65-6, vol. xxi (1921) pp. 89-109; Nos. 67-72, vol. xxii (1922) pp. 209-31; Nos. 73-76, vol. xxiii (1923) pp. 73-98; Nos. 77-88, ib. pp. 187-209; Nos. 89-104. vol. xxiv (1924) pp. 17-52. PEleph. = Elephantine Papyri, ed. O. Rubensohn, Ägyptische Ur- kunden aus den Kgl. Museen zu Berlin: Griechische Urkunden: Sonderheft, Berlin 1907. PEnteux. = Publications de la Société royale égyptienne de Papyrologie, Textes et Documents, i, Ἐντεύξεις . . , ed. O. Guéraud, Cairo 1931-2. PFay. = B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, D. G. Hogarth, Fayûm Towns and their Papyri, London 1900. PFlor. = Papiri Fiorentini, documenti pubblici e privati dell' età romana e bizantina: I ed. G. Vitelli, Milano 1906; II ed. D. Comparetti, 1908-11; III ed. G. Vitelli, 1915. PFrankf. = H. Lewald, Griechische Papyri aus dem Besitz des rechts- wissenschaftlichen Seminars der Universität Frankfurt (Sitzungs- berichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Kl. 1920, 14. Abh.). PFreib. = Mitteilungen aus der Freiburger Papyrussammlung, in Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Klasse, 1914, 2. Abh., 1916, 10. Abh. PGand} = Quelques papyrus des collections de Gand et de Paris, ed. PSorb.} M. Hombert, Revue belge de Philologie et d' Histoire iv (1925), 633-76: republished in Sammelb. iii. PGen. = Les papyrus de Genève transcrits et publiés par Jules Nicole, Geneva 1896, 1900. PGiss. = Griechische Papyri im Museum des oberhessischen Geschichts- vereins zu Giessen, Bd. I, Hefte 1-3, ed. O. Eger, E. Kornemann, P. M. Meyer, Leipzig etc. 1910-12. PGnom. = Der Gnomon des Idios Logos (BGU v (1) 1210) ed. W. Schubart 1919. PGoodsp. = E. J. Goodspeed, A group of Greek papyrus texts (Class. Phil. i, 1906, p. 167). PGoodsp.Cair. = E. J. Goodspeed, Greek papyri from the Cairo Museum . . (Decennial publications of the University of Chicago, 1st series, vol. v p. 3), Chicago 1904. PGot. = H. Frisk, Papyrus grecs de la Bibl. Municipale de Gothem- bourg, Göteborg 1929. PGrad. = G. Plaumann, Griechische Papyri der Sammlung Graden- witz (Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissen- schaften, 1914, 15. Abh.). PGrenf. 1. = B. P. Grenfell. An Alexandrian erotic fragment and other Greek papvri chiefly Ptolemaic, Oxford 1896. 2. = B. P. Grenfell & A. S. Hunt, New Classical Fragments and other Greek and Latin papyri. 1897. PGurob = Greek papyri from Gurob, ed. J. G. Smyly (Royal Irish Academy, Cunningham Memoirs, No. 12, Dublin-London 1921). PHal. = Halle Papyri = Dikaiomata: Auszüge aus alexandrinischen Gesetzen und Verordnungen in einem Papyrus des Philologischen Seminars der Universität Halle, mit einem Anhang . . herausgegeben von der Graeca Halensis . . , Berlin 1913. PHamb. = P. M. Meyer, Griechische Papyrusurkunden der Ham- burger Stadtbibliothek (Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek 1924), Bd. 1, Leipzig etc. 1911-24. PHarris = The Rendel Harris Papyri, ed. J. Enoch Powell, Cam- bridge 1936. PHaw. = The Hawara Papyri, ed. [Sir] W. M. Flinders Petrie, Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe, 1889: in part re-edited by J. G. Milne, Arch. Pap. v (1913) p. 378: PHaw. 80 and 81 re-edited by U. Wilcken in Genethliakon für C. Robert, Berlin 1910, p. 191. PHeid. = Veröffentlichungen aus der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung (vol. i = A. Deissmann, Die Septuaginta-Papyri und andere alt- christliche Texte, 1905; vol. iii (1) = C. H. Becker, Papyri Schott- Reinhardt, i, 1906). PHib. = Hibeh Papyri, Part I, ed. B. P. Grenfell & A. S. Hunt, London 1906. PHolm. = Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis, ed. O. Lagercrantz, Upp- sala 1913. PIand. = Papyri Iandanae: cum discipulis edidit Carolus Kalbfleisch, Leipzig & Berlin 1912-. PJena = Jenaer Papyrus-Urkunden, ed. F. Zucker & F. Schneider, Jena 1926. PKaran. = E. J. Goodspeed, Papyri from Karanis (Univ. of Chicago: Studies in Classical Philology, vol. iii), Chicago 1902. PKlein.Form. = Stud.Pal. (q.v.) iii, viii. PLeid. = C. Leemans, Papyri Graeci musei antiquarii publici Lugdu- ni-Batavi, tom. i Leiden 1843; tom. ii 1885. PLeid.U. = Somnium Nectanebi, ed. B. Lavagnini, Eroticorum Graecorum Fragmenta Papyracea, Leipzig (T.) 1922, p. 37: = UPZ 81. PLeid.V., v. PMag.Leid.V. ,, W., v. ,, ,, W. PLeid.X. = chemical papyrus in PLeid. (q.v.) vol. ii: reprinted in M. Berthelot, Archéologie et Histoire des Sciences (Paris 1906), pp. 269-306 ( = Comptes rendus des séances de l' Acad. des Sciences, tom. xlix): cited by Berthelot's sections. PLille = Institut papyrologique de l' université de Lille: Papyrus grecs publiés sous la direction de Pierre Jouguet . . , Paris 1907-28. PLips. = L. Mitteis, Griechische Urkunden der Papyrussammlung zu Leipzig. vol. i, 1906. PLit.Lond. = H. J. M. Milne, Catalogue of the Literary Papyri in the British Museum, London 1927. PLond. = Greek papyri in the British Museum, vols. i and ii ed. F. G. Kenyon, vol. iii ed. F. G. Kenyon & H. I. Bell, vols. iv and v ed. H. I. Bell, London 1893-; unpublished papyri (PLond. ined.) are cited by inventory No. PLond. 1821, ed. H. I. Bell & W. E. Crum, Aegyptus vi (1925) pp. 177-226. PLond.1912-29 = H. I. Bell, Jews and Christians in Egypt, London 1924. PMag. = Papyri Graecae Magicae, herausgegeben und übersetzt von K. Preisendanz, 2 vols., Leipzig & Berlin 1928, 1931. PMag.Berol. = G. Parthey, Zwei griechische Zauberpapyri des Ber- liner Museums, Abh. Berl. Akad. 1865 pp. 109-80; cf. W. Kroll, Philol. liv (1895) p. 564 ( = PMag. 1, 2). PMag.Leid.V. = Papyrus magica musei Lugdunensis Batavi, ed. A. Dieterich, Jahrb. f. kl. Phil., Suppl. xvi (1888) pp. 793-818; cited by column and line ( = PMag. 12). PMag.Leid.W. = Leiden magical papyrus W., ed. A. Dieterich, Abraxas (Festschrift . . Hermann Usener . . Bonn), Leipzig 1891; cited by page and line of the papyrus, as in Leemans' edition ( = PMag. 13, cited by column and line). PMag.Lond. = PLond.1.46, 121, etc. PMag.Par.1, 2 = C. Wessely, Wiener Denkschr. xxxvi (2) (1888) pp. 44-126, pp. 139-148; partly in A. Dieterich, Eine Mithras- liturgie, Leipzig 1903, pp. 1 ff., and A. Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, London 1919, pp. 258 ff. ( = PMag.4, 3). PMag.Rain. = C. Wessely, Wiener Denkschr. xlii (2) (1893) p. 65. PMagd. = Papyrus de Magdola, rééd . . . par Jean Lesquier, Paris 1912 (PLille II 2-4); republished in PEnteux. PMasp. = Jean Maspéro, Papyrus grecs d' époque byzantine, in Cata- logue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, I (Nos. 67001-67124) 1911, II (Nos. 67125-67278) 1913, III (Nos. 67279- 67359) 1916. Digits indicating 67(000) omitted in refs., thus: 2 = 67002. PMed.Lond. = London Medical Papyrus, No. 155, ed. C. Kalbfleisch in Papyri graecae Musei Britannici et Musei Berolinensis, Rostock 1902. PMed.Strassb. = Papyri Argentoratenses Graecae, ed. C. Kalbfleisch, Index lectionum in Academia Rostochiensi 1901. PMerton = H. Idris Bell & C. H. Roberts, Catalogue of the Greek papyri in the collection of Wilfred Merton, London, vol. i 1939. PMeyer = P. M. Meyer, Griechische Texte aus Agypten: 1. Papyri des neutestamentlichen Seminars der Universität Berlin; 2. Ostraka der Sammlung Deissmann, Berlin (Leipzig) 1916. PMich. = University of Michigan papyri, published in Trans. Am. Ph. Ass. liii (1922) p. 134. PMich.iii = Michigan Papyri vol. iii: Miscellaneous Papyri, edited by J. G. Winter ( = University of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series, vol. xl), Ann Arbor 1936. PMich.Teb. = Michigan Papyri vol. ii: Papyri from Tebtunis, in two volumes, Part I, ed. A. E. R. Boak ( = University of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series, vol. xxviii), Ann Arbor 1933. PMich.Zen. = Zenon papyri in the University of Michigan collection, ed. C. C. Edgar ( = University of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series, vol. xxiv), Ann Arbor 1931. PMilan. = Papiri Milanesi, ed. A. Calderini (Pubbl. di 'Aegyptus', S. Scient., vol. i), Parte i, Collezione Jacovelli-Vita, Milano, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 1928. PMilan.R.Univ. = PUniv.Milan. (q.v.). PMilan.17 = Commentario ad Antimaco da Colofone, ed. A. Vogliano, PUniv.Milan. i. 17. PMonac. = A. Heisenberg & L. Wenger, Byzantinische Papyri (Veröffentlichungen aus der Papyrus-Sammlung der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek zu München I), Leipzig 1914. POsl. = Papyri Osloenses, ed. S. Eitrem, Oslo 1925-. POxy. = Oxyrhynchus Papyri, ed. B. P. Grenfell & A. S. Hunt, London 1898-. PPar. = W. Brunet de Presle, Notices et extraits des papyrus grecs du musée du Louvre et de la bibliothèque impériale xviii (2), Paris 1865. PPar.Wess. = C. Wessely, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Faijûm (Wiener Denkschr. xxxvii (2) (1889) pp. 97 ff.). PPetr. = The Flinders Petrie Papyri . . , Pt. 1, ed. J. P. Mahaffy (Royal Irish Academy, Cunningham Memoirs, No. 8); Pt. 2, ed. J. P. Mahaffy (ibid., No. 9); Pt. 3, ed. J. P. Mahaffy & J. G. Smyly (ibid., No. 11), Dublin 1891-1905. PPrincet. = Papyri in the Princeton University Collections, vol. I ed. A. C. Johnson and H. B. van Hoesen ( = Johns Hopkins Univer- sity Studies in Archaeology No. 10), Baltimore 1931; vol. II ed. E. H. Kase ( = Princeton University Studies in Papyrology No. 1), Princeton 1936. PRain. (NS) = Mitteilungen aus der Papyrussammlung der National- bibliothek in Wien (Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer). Neue Serie I i (1932), ed. H. Gerstinger; I ii (1939), ed. H. Oellacher; cf. CPR. PRein. = Papyrus grecs et démotiques . . , ed. Théodore Reinach, Paris 1905. PRev.Laws = B. P. Grenfell, Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Oxford 1896. PRoss.-Georg. = Papyri Russischer und Georgischer Sammlungen, herausgegeben von Gregor Zereteli, bearbeitet von G Zereteli, O. Krüger, P. Jernstedt, Tiflis 1925-35. PRyl. = Catalogue of the Greek papyri in the John Rylands Library at Manchester, vol. i 1911, ed. A. S. Hunt; vol. ii 1915, ed. A. S. Hunt, J. de M. Johnson, V. Martin; vol. iii 1938, ed. C. H. Roberts. PSI = Papiri greci e latini (Pubblicazioni della Società italiana per la ricerca dei papiri greci e latini in Egitto), Firenze 1912-; cited by No. of vol., papyrus, and line. PSorb. (i.e. Papyri in the Sorbonne), v. PGand. PStrassb. = F. Preisigke, Griechische Papyrus der kaiserlichen Uni- versitäts- und Landesbibliothek zu Strassburg, 2 vols., Strassburg (afterwards Leipzig) 1906-20. PTaur. = V. A. Peyron, Papyri graeci regii Taurinensis musei Aegyptii, Turin 1826-7. PTeb. = Tebtunis Papyri, ed. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, J. G. Smyly, E. J. Goodspeed, London & New York, vol. i 1902, vol. ii 1907, vol. iii pt. i 1933, pt. 2 (ed. A. S. Hunt, J. G. Smyly, C. C. Edgar; London & Univ. of California Press) 1938. PThead. = Papyrus de Théadelphie, éd. par Pierre Jouguet, Paris 1911. PTheb.Bank = U. Wilcken, Aktenstücke aus der Kgl. Bank zu Theben (Abh. Berl. Akad. 1886). PUniv.Giss. = H. Kling and others, Mitteilungen aus der Papyrus- sammlung der Giessener Universitätsbibliothek, 1924-. PUniv.Milan. = A. Vogliano, Papiri della R. Università di Milano, vol. i, Milan 1937. PVarsov. = G. Manteuffel, Papyri Varsovienses, Warsaw 1935. PVat. 11 = Il Papiro Vaticano Greco 11 (1. Φαβωρίνου περὶ φυγῆς; 2. Registri Fondiari della Marmarica), ed. M. Norsa & G. Vitelli, Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 1931. (Studi e Testi 53.) PWarren = The Warren Papyri, ed. A. S. Hunt, cited from Studi in onore di S. Riccobono ii, Palermo 1932, pp. 521-5, and Aegyptus xiii (1933) pp. 241-6. PWürzb. = Mitteilungen aus der Würzburger Papyrussammlung, von Ulrich Wilcken (Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1933, Phil.-hist. Klasse No. 6), Berlin 1934. PZen.Col. = Zenon papyri: business papers of the 3rd century B.C., ed. W. L. Westermann and E. S. Hasenoehrl, New York, vol. i (Columbia Papyri, Greek Series, vol. iii) 1934. Raccolta Lumbroso = Raccolta di Scritti in onore di G. Lumbroso, Milan 1925. Sammelb. = Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Agypten (both inscriptions and papyri), Bde. i, ii ed. F. Preisigke, Strassburg (later Berlin & Leipzig) 1913-22; Bd. iii (6001-7269) ed. F. Bilabel, Berlin & Leipzig 1926-7; Bd. iv (7270-7514), Bd. v Heft 1 (7515-7654) ed. F. Bilabel, Heidelberg 1931, 1934. Stud.Pal. = C. Wessely, Studien zur Paläographie und Papyrus- kunde, Leipzig 1901-. Studi Riccobono, v. PWarren. Theb.Ostr. = Theban Ostraca . . Pt. iii: Greek texts, by J. G. Milne, Toronto (Oxford) 1913. Thunell Sitologenpapyri = K.Thunell, Sitologen-Papyri aus d. Berliner Museum, Uppsala 1924; republished in P Berl. Leihg. UPZ = U. Wilcken, Urkunden der Ptolemäerzeit: I. Papyri aus Unterägypten, Berlin & Leipzig 1922; II. Papyri aus Oberägypten, 1935-. Wilcken Chr., v. Mitteis Chr.
NOTE.—(a) Periodicals are cited by No. of vol. except where otherwise stated. (b) References to periodicals (unless otherwise explained in the context) are to inscriptions published therein.
AEM = Archäologisch-epigraphische Mittheilungen aus Oesterreich- Ungarn, 1877-97. AJA = American Journal of Archaeology, second series, 1897-. AJP = American Journal of Philology, 1880-. Abh.Berl.Akad. = Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin), earlier der Koeniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (cited by Jahrgang). Aegyptus, Milan 1920-. Aevum = Aevum, rassegna di scienze storiche, etc. (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore), Milan 1927-. Africa Italiana = Africa Italiana, collezione di monografie, Rome 1925-. Africa Italiana Riv. = Africa Italiana, rivista di storia e d'arte, Ber- gamo 1927-. Albania = Albania: revue d'archéologie, d'histoire, d'art et des sciences appliquées en Albanie et dans les Balkans, i, ii, Milan etc., iii-, Paris 1925-. Ann.Épigr. = L'Année épigraphique, published in Revue Archéo- logique (cited by year). Annales du Service = Annales du Service des Antiquités de l' Égypte, 1899-. Annuario = Annuario della regia Scuola Archeologica di Atene, 1914-. Arch.Anz. = Archäologischer Anzeiger, in Jahrb. (q.v.). Ἀρχ.Δελτ. Ἀρχαιολογικὸν Δελτίον, 1915- (cited by year). Ἀρχ.Ἐφ. Ἀρχαιολογικὴ Ἐφημερίς, 1910- (cited by year). Arch.Pap. = Archiv für Papyrusforschung, 1900-. Arch.f.Religionswiss. = Archiv für Religionswissenschaft, Freiburg im Breisgau 1898-. Atene e Roma, 1898-. Ath.Mitt. = Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung, 1876-. Ἀθηνᾶ, 1889-. Atti Acc. Napoli = Atti della Reale Accademia di Archeologia ecc., Napoli, Nuova Serie, 1910-. Ausonia = Ausonia, Rivista della Società italiana di archeologia e storia dell'arte, 1906-. BCH = Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, 1877-. BpW = Berliner philologische Wochenschrift, 1881-1920. Cf. Phil. Wochenschr. BSA = Annual of the British School at Athens, 1895-. Berl.Sitzb. = Sitzungsberichte (Monatsberichte before 1882) der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) (cited by year). Bull.Comm.Arch.Com. = Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma, Rome 1872-. Bull.Inst.Arch.Bulg. = Bulletin de l' Institut archéologique bulgare, Sophia 1921-. Bull.Inst.Ég. = Bulletin de l'institut égyptien, cinquième série, Cairo 1907-18. Bull.Inst.Franç. = Bulletin de l' Institut Français d' Archéologie Oricn- tale, Le Caire 1901-. Bull.Soc.Alex. = Bulletin de la Société Archéologique d' Alexandrie, Alexandria. First Series 1898-1902 (Nos. 1-5); Nouv. Série (vol. i, No. 6-) 1904- (cited by volume). Byz.-neugr.Jahrb. = Byzantinisch-neugriechische Jahrbücher, 1920-. Βυζάντιον Βυζάντιον, Revue internationale des études byzantines, Paris 1924-. CQ = Classical Quarterly, 1907-. CR = Classical Review, 1887-. CRAcad.Inscr. = Comptes rendus de l' Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (cited by year). Clara Rhodos = Clara Rhodos, studi e materiali pubbl. a cura del- l' Istituto storico-archeologico di Rodi, Rhodes 1928-. Class.Phil. = Classical Philology, Chicago 1906-. Dacia = Dacia: recherches et découvertes archéologiques en Roumanie, publ. sous la dir. de V. Pârvan, Bucarest 1927-. Docum. ant. dell' Africa Italiana = Documenti antichi dell' Africa Italiana, Bergamo 1932-. Ἑλληνικά Ἑλληνικά, ἱστορικὸν περιοδικὸν δημοσίευμα, Athens 1928-. Eos, Commentarii Societatis Philologae Polonorum, Lwów 1894-. Ἐφ.Ἀρχ. Ἐφημερὶς Ἀρχαιολογική, περίοδος τρίτη, 1883-1909 (cited by year). Ἠπειρωτικὰ χρονικά, 1926-. Eranos = Eranos: Acta philologica Suecana, 1906-. Ét.de Pap. = Société royale égyptienne de papyrologie: Études de Papy- rologie, Le Caire 1932-. Glotta, 1907-. Gött.gel.Anz. = Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen (cited by year). Gött.Nachr. = Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen (cited by year). Harv.Theol.Rev. = Harvard Theological Review, 1908-. Hermes, 1866-. Hesperia = Hesperia: Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Cambridge, Mass. 1932-. Historia = Historia, studi storici per l' antichità classica, 1-9, Milan & Rome 1927-35. Istros = Istros: revue roumaine d'archéologie et d'histoire ancienne, Bucarest 1934-. Izv.Arch.Comm. = <*><*><*> <*><*><*>(Reports of the Archaeological Commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences), Petrograd 1901-18. JEA = Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1914-. JHS = Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1880-. JRS = Journal of Roman Studies, 1911-. Jahrb. = Jahrbuch des (kaiserlich) deutschen archäologischen Instituts, 1886- (contains Arch. Anz.). Jahresh. = Jahreshefte des österreichischen archäologischen Institutes, 1898-; Beibl. = Beiblatt. Klio = Klio, Beiträge zur alten Geschichte, 1901-. L' Ant.Cl. = L' Antiquité Classique, Louvain 1932-. Leipz.Stud. = Leipziger Studien zur klassischen Philologie, 1878-95. Liv.Ann. = Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1908-. Mél. de l'éc. fr. de Rome = Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire: École française de Rome, Paris & Rome 1881-. Mélanges Beyrouth = Mélanges de l' Université Saint-Joseph, Beyrouth (Liban), Beyrouth 1906-. Mém.Inst.Franç. = Mémoires publiés par les membres de l' Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire 1902-. Mnemos = Mnemosyne, 1852-. Mon.Ant. = Monumenti antichi pubblicati per cura della Reale Ac- cademia dei Lincei, 1890-. Μουσ. Σμυρν. Μουσεῖον [Σμυρναῖον] καὶ βιβλιοθήκη τῆς Εὐαγγελικῆς Σχολῆς, Smyrna 1875-86 (cited by year). Mus.Belg. = Musée Belge, 1897-. Not.Scav. = Notizie degli Scavi, Serie v, 1904-. Notiz.Arch. = Notiziario Archeologico del Ministero delle Colonie, Milan-Rome 1915-. Papers of Amer. School at Athens = Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Boston 1882 (publ. 1885)-1897. Phil.Wochenschr. = Philologische Wochenschrift (incorporating Ber- liner philologische Wochenschrift and Wochenschrift für klassische Philologie), 1921-. Philol. = Philologus, 1841-. Πολέμων Πολέμων, ἐπιστημονικὸν ἀρχαιολογικὸν περιοδικόν, Athens 1929 (only vol. i published, but there are offprints from vol. ii). Πρακτικὰ Ἀκ.Ἀθ. Πρακτικὰ τῆς Ἀκαδημίας Ἀθηνῶν, 1926-. QDAP = Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine, London 1931-. Recueil de Travaux = Recueil de Travaux relatifs à la philologie et à l'archéologie égyptiennes et assyriennes, 1870-. Rend. Pont. Accad. Arch. = Rendiconti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia, 1921/2-. Rev.Arch. = Revue Archéologique (cited by year). Rev.Bibl. = Revue Biblique internationale, Paris 1892-. Rev.Épigr. = Revue Épigraphique, 2 vols., 1913-14 (all published). Rev.Ét.Gr. = Revue des Études grecques, 1888-. Rev.Hist.Rel. = Revue de l'histoire des religions, Paris 1880-. Rev.Phil. = Revue de Philologie, Nouv. Série 1877-1926, Troisième Sér. 1927-. Rh.Mus. = Rheinisches Museum, Neue Folge, Frankfurt 1842-1920. Riv.Fil. = Rivista di Filologia, 1873-. Riv.1st.Arch. = Rivista del R. Istituto d' Archeologia e Storia del- l' Arte, Rome 1929-. Röm.Mitt. = Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung, 1886-. Sitzb.Heidelb.Akad. = Heidelberg. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sit- zungsberichte (phil.-hist. Klasse) 1910- (cited by year). Sokrates = Sokrates, Neue Folge, Berlin 1913-24. Stud.Ital. = Studi italiani di filologia classica, nuova serie i-, Florence 1920-. Syria, Paris 1920-. Trans.Am.Phil.Ass. = Transactions of the American Philological Association, 1869-. Univ. of Eg. Fac. Bull. = Université Égyptienne, Faculty of Arts Bulletin, Cairo 1933-. WkP = Wochenschrift für klassische Philologie, 1884-1920. Cf. Phil. Wochenschr. Wien.Sitzb. = Sitzungsberichte der(Kaiserlichen) Akademie der Wissen- schaften in Wien, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, 1849-. Wien.Stud. = Wiener Studien, 1879-. Wiener Denkschr. = Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Phil.-hist. Klasse, 1850- (cited by year). Yale Class. Studies = Yale Classical Studies, 1928-. Zeitschr.d.Savigny-Stiftung = Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung f[ucaron]r Rechtsgeschichte, romanistische Abteilung, 1880-.
NOTE.—This list contains:
(1) Abbreviations used in the Lexicon or in Lists I-IV, but not explained in those lists. (2) Abbreviations explained in List I but out of their alphabetical order. For all names of authors List I is to be consulted; the note 'v. I' has been added only to names of works cited without an author's name. (3) All abbreviations explained in Lists II-IV, with references to those lists. It does not contain titles of works given in List I under the author's name or under Anonymus.
A. = Aeschylus AB = Anecdota Graeca, v. I A.D. = Apollonius Dyscolus AEM, v. IV AJA, v. IV AJP, v. IV AP, APl., v. Anthologia Graeca A.R. = Apollonius Rhodius Abh.Berl.Akad., v. IV. abs. = absolute, absolutely acc. = accusative acc. to = according to Act. = Active Act.Ap. = Acts of the Apostles ad loc. = ad locum Adj. = Adjective Adv., Advbs. = Adverb, Adverbs Aeol. = Aeolic Aesch.Alex. = Aeschylus Alexan- drinus afterwds. = afterwards Agath. = Agathias Al. = ἄλλοι, v. Vetus Testamentum al. = alibi (i.e. elsewhere in the same author) Alc. = Alcaeus Alcm. = Alcman Alex. = Alexis, when followed di- rectly by a number, otherwise = Alexander Amm.Marc. = Ammianus Marcel- linus An.Ox.,Par. = Anecdota Oxonien- sia, Parisiensia, v. I anap. = anapaests Anat. = in Anatomy Anatolian Studies, v. II And. = Andocides Anecd.Stud. = Anecdota Graeca et Latina, ed. R. Schoell & G. Studemund, v. I Ann.Épigr., v. IV Annales du Service, v. IV Annuario, v. IV Ant.Diog. = Antonius Diogenes Ant.Lib. = Antoninus Liberalis Antip. = Antipater Antiph. = Antiphanes aor. = aorist ap. = apud (quoted in) Ap.Ty. = Apollonius Tyanensis Apoc. = Apocalypse Apollon. = Apollonius App. = Appianus App.Anth., v. Anthologia Graeca Appellat. = Appellative apptly. = apparently Ar. = Aristophanes Ar.Byz. = Aristophanes Byzanti- nus Ar.Did. = Arius Didymus [lect Arc. = Arcadius or Arcadian dia- Arch. = Archias Arch.Anz., v. IV Ἀρχ.Δελτ., v. IV Ἀρχ.Ἐφ., v. IV Arch.Pap., v. IV Archit. = in Architecture Arg. = Argive or Argument Arist. = Aristoteles Aristoph. = Aristophanes (the Homeric critic) Arm. = Armenian Art. = Article Ascl. = Asclepiodotus or Ascle- pius Asclep. = Asclepiades Asp. = Aspasius Astrol. = in Astrology Atene e Roma, v. IV Ath. = Athenaeus Ath.Mitt., v. IV Ἀθηνᾶ, v. IV Att. = Attic dialect augm. = augment Aus. = Ausonius Ausonia, v. IV Avest. = Avestan B. = Bacchylides BCH, v. IV BGU, v. III BKT, v. III BMus.Inscr., v. II BpW, v. IV BSA, v. IV Bacch. = Bacchius Benndorf-Niemann Reisen in Ly- kien, v. II Berl.Sitzb., v. IV Bgk. = Bergk Bilabel Ὀψαρτ., v. III Blomf. = Blomfield Boeot. = Boeotian dialect Buttm. = Philipp Buttmann Byz. = Byzantine CAF = T. Kock, Comicorum Atti- corum Fragmenta, 3 vols., Leipzig 1880-8 CGF = G. Kaibel, Comicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, vol. i fasc. i (all published), Berlin 1899 CIA, v. IG in II CIG, v. II CIL, v. II CMG = Corpus Medicorum Grae- corum, Leipzig 1908- CPHerm., v. III CPR, v. III CQ, v. IV CR, v. IV CRAcad.Inscr., v. IV c. gen. pers., etc. = cum genitivo personae, etc. ca. = circa Call. = Callimachus Call.Com. = Callias Comicus Call.Hist. = Callias Historicus Callin. = Callinus Carm. = Carmen, Carmina, v. I Cerc. = Cercidas Cercop. = Cercopes, v. I Certamen, v. I cf. = confer, conferatur Chron.Lind., v. II cj. = conjecture, conjectured by Cleobul. = Cleobulus Cod. = Codex, v. I cod., codd. = codex, codices cogn. = cognate coll. or collect. = collective Coll.Alex. = J. U. Powell, Col- lectanea Alexandrina, Oxford 1925 collat. = collateral Com. = Comedy, Comic, in the language of the Comic writers Com.Adesp., v. I Comm.in Arist.Graeca = Commen- taria in Aristotelem Graeca Comp. = Comparative compd. = compound compos. = composition Const. Δέδωκεν, v. Justinianus Const.omnem, v. Justinianus Conj. = Conjunction conj. = conjunctive constr. = construction contr. = contracted, contraction copul. = copulative Corc. = Corcyra. Corcyraean Corp.Herm., v. I correl. = correlative Cret. = Cretan Cypr. = Cypria (v. I) or Cyprian dialect D. = Demosthenes D.C. = Dio Cassius D.Chr. = Dio Chrysostomus D.H. = Dionysius Halicarnassen- sis D.L. = Diogenes Laertius D.P. = Dionysius Periegeta D.S. = Diodorus Siculus D.T. = Dionysius Thrax Dam. = Damascius dat. = dative Decr. = Decretum defect. = defective Delph.3(1), (2), v. II Dem.Bith. = Demosthenes Bithy- nus Dem.Ophth. = Demosthenes, Ophthalmicorum Scriptor Dem.Phal. = Demetrius Phale- reus, Historicus demonstr. = demonstrative Dep. = Deponent Verb deriv. = derived, derivation, de- rivative Desiderat. = Desiderative difft. = different Dig. = Digesta, v. I Dim. = Diminutive Din. = Dinarchus Dind. = Dindorf (W. or L.) Diog. = Diogenes Dion.Byz. = Dionysius Byzantius Dioph. = Diophantus dissim. = dissimilated dist., distd., distn. = distinct, dis- tinguished, distinction disyll. = disyllable Docum. = Documentum Dor. = Doric downwds. = downwards Dsc. = Dioscorides Medicus dub., dub. l., dub. sens. = dubious, dubia lectio, dubio sensu E. = Euripides EGF = G. Kinkel, Epicorum Grae- corum Fragmenta i (all pub- lished), Leipzig (T.) 1877 EM = Etymologicum Magnum e.g. = exempli gratia Ecphant. = Ecphantus ed. = edited by edd. = editors Edict. Diocl., v. II Eleg.Alex.Adesp., v. I ellipt. = elliptically Elmsl. = Elmsley elsewh. = elsewhere enclit. = enclitic Ep. = Epice, in the Epic dialect Ep. = Epistula, rarely Epigram Ep.Col., etc. = Epistle to the Colos- sians, etc., v. Novum Testa- mentum Ἐφ.Ἀρχ., v. IV Eph.Epigr., v. II Ephes.2, v. II Epic. = Epicus Epic.Alex.Adesp., v. I Epic. = Epidaurus Epig. = Epigenes or Epigonus Epigoni, v. I Epigr. = Epigram Epigr.Gr. v. II Epin. = Epinicus Epist. Charact. = Characteres Epi- stolici, v. I Epistolographi = R. Hercher, Epi- stolographi Graeci, Paris (D.) 1873 epith. = epithet equiv. = equivalent Eranos, v. IV Erotici = R. Hercher, Erotici Scriptores Graeci, Leipzig (T.) 1858-9 esp. = especially Et.Gen. = Etymologicum Genui- num Et.Gud. = Etymologicum Gudia- num etc. = et cetera (i. e. in other authors) etym. = etymology, etymologic- ally Eub. = Eubulus Euc. = Euclides Eup. = Eupolis Euph. = Euphorio euph. or euphon. = euphonic euphem. = euphemistic, euphe- mistically Eust. = Eustathius Eustr. = Eustratius Ev.Jo., etc. = Gospel according to John, etc., v. Novum Testa- mentum exc. = except exclam. = exclamation expl., expld. = explanation, ex- plained FGrH = F. Jacoby, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, Berlin 1923- FHG = C. Müller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, 5 vols., Paris (D) 1841-70 FPG = F. W. A. Mullach, Frag- menta Philosophorum Grae- corum, 3 vols., Paris (D.) 1860-81 f.l. = falsa lectio fem. = feminine fin. = sub finem Foed. = Foedus Foed.Delph.Pell., v. II folld. = followed foreg. = foregoing fort. = fortasse Fr. = Fragment fr. = from freq. = frequent, frequently Frequentat. = Frequentative Verb fut. = future GDI, v. II GGM = C. Müller, Geographici Graeci Minores, Paris (D.) 1855-61 Gal. = Galenus gen. or genit. = genitive Geom. = in Geometry Germ. = German Gloss. = Glossaria, v. I Glotta, v. IV Goth. = Gothic Gött.gel.Anz., v. IV Gött. Nachr., v. IV. Gp. = Geoponica, v. I Gr. = Greek Gramm. = Grammarians, in the language of the Grammarians Gramm. Lat. = H. Keil, Gram- matici Latini, Leipzig 1855-80 HGM = L. Dindorf, Historici Graeci Minores, Leipzig (T.) 1870-1 h.Ap., etc. = Hymnus ad Apol- linem, etc., v. sq. h.Hom. = hymni Homerici Halic. = Halicarnassus Haussoullier Milet, v. II Hdn. = Herodianus Hdt. = Herodotus Heb. = Ἑβραῖος, v. Vetus Testa- mentum Hebr. = Hebrew Hell.Oxy. = Hellenica Oxyrhyn- chia, v. I Hemerolog.Flor., v. I Heracl. = Heraclas Herc., v. III Herm. = Hermann, Hermes, or Hermias Hermes, v. IV Herod. = Herodas Herod.Med. = Herodotus Medi- cus Hes. = Hesiodus heterocl. = heteroclite heterog. = heterogeneous hex. = hexameters Hippiatr., v. I Hist.Aug. = Historiae Augustae Scriptores, v. I Hld. = Heliodorus, Scriptor Ero- ticus Hp. = Hippocrates Hsch. = Hesychius Hymn. = Hymnus, Hymni, v. I hyperdor. = hyperdorian I.-E., I.-Eur. = Indo-European IG, v. II IGRom., v. II IPE, v. II i.e. = id est ib. = ibidem (i.e. in the same work) ibid. = ibidem (i.e. in the same passage) Icel. = Icelandic Id. = Idem Il. = Iliad imper. = imperative impers. = impersonal impf. = imperfect inc.loc. = incerto loco ind. or indic. = indicative indecl. = indeclinable indef. = indefinite inf. = infinitive init. = ad initium Inscr. = Inscription Inscr.Cos, Cypr., etc., v. II insep. = inseparable instr. = instrumental intens. = intensive interp. or interpol. = interpolated interpr. = interpreted, interpreta- tion interrog. = interrogative intr. = intransitive Ion. = Ionic irreg. = irregular Is. = Isaeus Iterat. = Iterative Izv.Arch.Comm., v. IV J. = Josephus JHS, v. IV JRS, v. IV Jahrb., v. IV Jahresh., v. IV Jo. = Joannes Jusj. = Jusjurandum Keil-Premerstein, v. II Klio, v. IV LF, LW, v. II l. = lege l. c., ll. cc. = loco citato, locis citatis Lacon. = Laconian Lat. = Latin Leg.Gort., v. II Leg.Sacr., v. II leg. = legendum Leipz.Stud., v. IV lengthd. = lengthened Leon. = Leonidas (two epigram- matists) Leonid. = Leonidas Medicus Lett. = Lettish Lex = Lex (law) Lex. = Lexicon, v. I lit. = literally, literal Lit.Crit. = in Literary Criticism Lith. = Lithuanian Liv.Ann., v. IV Lob. = C. A. Lobeck loc. = locative Lyc. = Lycophron Lyr. = Lyricus, Lyric poetry Lyr.Adesp., v. I Lyr.Alex.Adesp., v. I Lys. = Lysias Lysim. = Lysimachus M.Ant. = Marcus Antoninus, v. Marcus ME., MHG., etc. = Middle Eng- lish, Middle High German, etc. Magn. = Magnes Man. = Manetho Mantiss Prov., v. I Mar.Vict. = Marius Victorinus Marc.Arg. = Marcus Argentarius Marc.Sid. = Marcellus Sidetes Margites, v. I Marm.Par., v. II masc. = masculine Math. = in Mathematics Med. = Medium, Middle Medic. = in medical writers Megar. = Megarian Megalop. = Megalopolis Mein. = Meineke Mel. = Meleager Meliss. = Melissus Men. = Menander Mess. = Messenian metaph. = metaphorically, meta- phorical metaplast. = metaplastice metath. = metathesis metr. = metrically metrigr. = metri gratia Michel, v. II Milet.3, 6, 7, v. II Mitteis Chr., v. III Mnemos, v. IV Mod. = modern Moer. = Moeris Mon.Anc.Gr., v. II Mon.Ant., v. IV Mosch. = Moschus Μους. Σμυρν., v. IV Mus.Belg., v. IV Music. = in musical writers NT = Novum Testamentum n. pr. = nomen proprium neg. = negative neut. or n. = neuter Nic. = Nicander or Nicias Nic.Dam. = Nicolaus Damascenus nom. = nominative Nosti, v. I Not.Scav., v. IV OE. = Old English OGI, v. II OHG. = Old High German OIr. = Old Irish Od. = Odyssey oft. = often opp. = opposed to opt. = optative Orac. = Oraculum Orat.Att. = J. G. Baiter and H. Sauppe, Oratores Attici, Zurich 1839-50 orat. obliq. = oratio obliqua Oratt. = Oratores Attici Orchom. = Orchomenos orig. = originally Osc. = Oscan Ostr., v. III Ostr.Strassb.. v. III Oxy. = POxy., q. v. (III) oxyt. = oxytone PAlex. and other abbrevs. begin- ning with P, v. III PLG = T. Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci4, Leipzig 1882 (reprint 1914-15) PPF = H. Diels, Poetarum Philo- sophorum Fragmenta, Berlin 1901 Pall. = Palladius or Palladas Pamph. = Pamphylian Pap. = Papyrus paratrag. = paratragoedia Parm. = Parmenides Parmen. = Parmenio parod. = parody Paroemiographi = E. L. von Leutsch & F. G. Schneidewin, Corpus Paroemiographorum Graecorum, Göttingen 1839-51 parox. = paroxytone part. = participle partit. = partitive Pass. = Passive Patron. = Patronymic pecul. = peculiar perh. = perhaps Peripl.M.Rubr., v. I perispom. = perispomenon pers., person. = person, personal Petersen-Luschan Reisen in Ly- kien, v. II pf. or perf. = perfect Ph. = Philo Phan. = Phanias Phil. = Philippus Epigrammaticus Phil.Wochenschr., v. IV Philet. = Philetas Philipp.Com. = Philippus Comi- cus Philol. = Philolaus Philol., v. IV Philonid. = Philonides; for Vit. Philonid. v. infr. Philos. = in Philosophy Phld. = Philodemus Philosophus Phlp. = Philoponus Phoen. = Phoenix Pi. = Pindarus pl. = plural Pl. = Plato Placit., v. I Plb. = Polybius Plin. = Pliny plpf. = pluperfect Poet. = Poeta, poetical Pors. = Porson post-Hom. = post-Homeric pr. n. = proper name Prep. = Preposition pres. = present Prisc. = Priscus Historicus Prisc Lyd. = Priscianus Lydus Priscian.Inst. = Priscianus Gram- maticus, Institutio priv. = privative prob. = probable, probably prob. for = probably to be read instead of prob. l. = probable reading Pron. = Pronoun prop. = properly proparox. = proparoxytone properisp. = properispomenon prov. = proverbially, proverbial Q.S. = Quintus Smyrnaeus q.v., qq. v. = quod vide, quae vide qn. = question Quint. = Quintilianus or Quinta Versio (v. Vetus Testamentum) radic. = radical Ramsay Cities and Bishoprics, v. II Recueil de Travaux, v. IV reflex. = reflexive regul. = regular, regularly relat. = relative rest. = restoration Rev.Arch., v. IV Rev.Épigr., v. IV Rev.Ét.Gr., v. IV Rev.Phil., v. IV Rh. = Rhetores Graeci, ed. Walz Rh.Mus., v. IV Rhet. = Rhetorical, Rhetoric Rhet. = L. Spengel, Rhetores Graeci, 3 vols., Leipzig (T.) 1853-6: i pars ii, iterum ed. C. Hammer 1894 Riv.Fil., v. IV Roussel Cultes Égyptiens, v. II Ruf. = Rufus Rufin. = Rufinus Ruhnk. = Ruhnken Rüsch, v. II S. = Sophocles S.E. = Sextus Empiricus SIG, v. II SRAM = C. Müller, Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni, Paris (D., post Arrianum) 1846 SVF = H. von Arnim, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, Leipzig 1903 s.v. = sub voce s.v.l. = si vera lectio Sammelb., v. III sc. = scilicet Sch. = Scholia; see under several authors Schneid. = Schneider Schw. = Schweighäuser Schwyzer, v. II Scol. = Scolia sens.obsc. = sensu obsceno Sext. = Sextus Philosophus or Sexta Versio (v. Vetus Testa- mentum) sg. = singular shd. = should shortd. = shortened signf. = signification Skt. = Sanskrit Slav. = Slavonic Sm. = Symmachus sq, sqq. = sequens, sequentia St.Byz. = Stephanus Byzantius Stad. = Stadiasmus, v. I Stoic. = SVF, q. v. Str. = Strabo strengthd. = strengthened sts. = sometimes Stud.Ital. = Studi italiani di filo- logia classica, 1893- Stud.Pal., v. III Stud.Pont., v. II sub. = subaudi subj. = subjunctive Subst. = Substantive Sup. = Superlative Supp.Com. = J.Demiańczuk,Sup- plementum Comicum, Cracow 1912 Supp.Epigr., v. II Supp.Lyr. = E Diehl, Supplemen- tum Lyricum3, Bonn 1917 suppl. = supplement Surg. = in Surgery susp., susp. l. = suspected, sus- pecta lectio syll. = syllable sync = syncopated Syngr. = Syngrapha synon. = synonymous Syrac. = Syracuse, Syracusan TAM, v. II TGF = A. Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta2, Leip- zig 1889 t.t. = technical term Tab.Defix, v. II Tab.Defix.Aud., v. II Tab Heracl., v. II Tarent. = Tarentum, Tarentine termin. = termination Test. Testimonium Test.Epict, v. II Th. = Thucydides Thd. = Theodotion Theb.Ostr., v. III Thebaïs, v. I Them. = Themistius Themist. = Themistocles Theo Sm. = Theon Smyrnaeus Theoc. = Theocritus Theod. = Theodorus Theol.Ar., v. I Thess. = Thessalian Thgn. = Theognis Thphr. = Theophrastus Ti.Locr. = Timaeus Locrus Tim. = Timotheus Lyricus Tim.Com. = Timotheus Comicus Tim.Gaz. = Timotheus Gazaeus Tim.Lex. = Timaeus Grammati- cus tit. = titulus Titanomach. = Titanomachia, v. I tm. = tmesis Trag. = Tragic, Tragedy, in the language of the Tragic writers Trag.Adesp., v. I tians. = transitive trisyll. = trisyllable Tryph. = Tryphiodorus Tull.Sab. = Sabinus (q.v.), Tullius Tyrrhen. = Tyrrhenian UPZ, v. III Umbr. = Umbrian usu. = usually v. = vide; also voce or vocem v.h.v. = vide hanc vocem v.l., vv.ll. = varia lectio, variae lectiones Ved. = Vedic verb. Adj. = verbal Adjective Vit.Philonid. = VitaPhilonidisEpi- curei, v. I voc. = voce, vocem; also vocative Vorsokr. = H. Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker4, Berlin 1922 WkP, v. IV Wien.Stud., v. IV Wiener Denkschr., v. IV Wilcken Chr., v. III X. = Xenophon X.Eph. = Xenophon Ephesius Xenoph. = Xenophanes Zeitschr.d.Savigny-Stiftung, v.IV Zen. = Zenobius Zon. = Zonas
Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott , A Greek-English Lexicon; Machine readable text (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford) [word count] [greatscott01].