Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights (English) (XML Header) [word count] [Gell.].
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2.21.1SEVERAL of us, Greeks and Romans, who were pursuing the same studies, were crossing in the same boat from Aegina to the Piraeus. It was night, the sea was calm, the time summer, and the sky

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bright and clear. So we all sat together in the stern and watched the brilliant stars. Then those of our company who were acquainted with Grecian lore discussed with learning and acumen such questions as these: what the ἅμαξα, or Wain, was, and what Boötes, which was the Great, and which the Little Bear and why they were so called; in what direction that constellation moved in the course of the advancing night, and why Homer says Iliad, xviii. 489; Odyss. v. 275 Ἄρκτον . . . οἴη δʼ ἄμμορός ἐστι λοετρῶν Ὠκεανοῖο. that this is the only constellation that does not set, in view of the fact that there are some other stars that do not set.

Thereupon I turned to our compatriots and said: Why don't you barbarians tell me why we give the name of septentriones to what the Greeks call ἅμαξα. Now ' because we see seven stars' is not a sufficient answer, but I desire to be informed at some length, said I, of the meaning of the whole idea which we express by the word septentriones.

Then one of them, who had devoted himself to ancient literature and antiquities, replied: "The common run of grammarians think that the word septentriones is derived solely from the number of stars. For they declare that triones of itself has no meaning, but is a mere addition to the word; just as in our word quinquatrus, so called because five is the number of days after the Ides, The quinquatrtus, or festival of Minerva, was so called because it came on the fifth day after the Ides (fifteenth) of March. atrus means nothing. But for my part, I agree with Lucius Aelius Fr. 42, Fun. and Marcus Varro, De Ling. Lat. vii. 4. 74. who wrote that oxen were called triones, a rustic term it is true, as if they were terriones, A word made up from terra, earth ; the derivation is a fanciful one. Triones is connected with tero, rub, tread, etc. that is to say, adapted to nominibus regionibusque docere nos ipse vellet,

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ploughing and cultivating the earth. Therefore this constellation, which the early Greeks called ἅμαξα merely from its form and position, because it seemed to resemble a wagon, the early men also of our country called septentriones, from oxen yoked together, that is, seven stars by which yoked oxen (triones) seem to be represented. After giving this opinion, Varro further added," said he, that he suspected that these seven stars were called triones rather for the reason that they are so situated that every group of three neighbouring stars forms a triangle, that is to say, a three-sided figure.

Of these two reasons which he gave, the latter seemed the neater and the more ingenious; for as we looked at that constellation, it actually appeared to consist of triangles. This is true, whatever the origin of the name.

2.22XXII 2.22.22arg

Information about the wind called Iapyx and about the names and quarters of other winds, derived from the discourses of Favorinus.

2.22.1AT Favorinus' table, when he dined with friends, there was usually read either an old song of one of the lyric poets, or something from history, now in Greek and now in Latin. Thus one day there was read there, in a Latin poem, Perhaps Horace, Odes, i. 3. 4 or iii. 27. 20. Gellius mentions Horace by name only once, in § 25, below. the word Iapyx, the name of a wind, and the question was asked what wind this was, from what quarter it blew, and what was the origin of so rare a term; and we also asked Favorinus to be so good as to inform us about the names and quarters of the other winds,

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since there was no general agreement as to their designations, positions or number.

Then Favorinus ran on as follows: It is well known, said he, " that there are four quarters and regions of the heavens—east, west, south and north. East and west are movable and variable points; Since the Latin terms for east and west mean the sun's rising and setting. south and north are permanently fixed and unalterable. For the sun does not always rise in exactly the same place, but its rising is called either equinoctial when it runs the course which is called ἰσημερινός (with equal days and nights), or solsticial, which is equivalent to θεριναὶ τροπαί (summer turnings), or brumal, which is the same as χειμεριναὶ τροπαί, or 'winter turnings.' So too the sun does not always set in the same place; for in the same way its setting is called equinoctial, solstitial, or brumal. Therefore the wind which blows from the sun's spring, or equinoctial, rising is called eurus, a word derived, as your etymologists say, from the Greek which means ' that which flows from the east.' This wind is called by the Greeks by still another name, ἀφηλιώτης, or 'in the direction of the sun'; and by the Roman sailors, subsolanus (lying beneath the sun). But the wind that comes from the summer and solstitial point of rising This at the summer solstice would be far to the north. is called in Latin aquilo, in Greek βορέας, and some say it was for that reason that Homer called Odyss. v. 296. it αἰθρηγενέτης, or 'ether-born' That is, from the clear, bright sky, often attending the sunrise. ; but boreas, they think, is so named ἀπὸ τῆς βοῆς, 'from the loud shout,' since its blast is violent and noisy. To the third wind, which blows from the point of the winter rising—the Romans call it volturnus—many of the Greeks give a compound name, εὐρόνοτος, because it is between eurus and notus. These

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then are the three east winds: aquilo, volturnus and curus, and eurus lies between the other two. Opposite to and facing these are three other winds from the west: caurus, which the Greeks commonly call ἀργεστής From ἀργής, white, brilliant. The Latin equivalent was argestis, which, according to Isidor (Orig. xiii. 11. 10), the common people corrupted into agrestis. or 'clearing'; this blows from the quarter opposite aquilo. There is a second, favonius, Perhaps connected with foveo, as a mild, pleasant wind; see Thes. Ling. Lat., s. v. Or with faveo, Faunus, Walde, Etym. Lat. Dict. which in Greek is called ζέφυρος, blowing from the point opposite to eurus; and a third, Africus, which in Greek is λίψ, From λείβω, Lat. libo, pour, pour out. or 'wet-bringing,' blows in opposition to volturnus. These two opposite quarters of the sky, east and west, have, as we see, six winds opposite to one another. But the south, since it is a fixed and invariable point, has but one single south wind; this in Latin is termed auster, in Greek νότος, because it is cloudy and wet, for νοτίς is the Greek for 'moisture.' 'The derivation of auster is uncertain; see Thes. Ling. Lat., s. v. Walde connects it with words meaning east and eastern, adding Merkwiirdig ist die Bedeutung 'Sudwind,' nicht 'Ostwind'; doch ist auch in der Vogelschau die Richtung gegen Osten teilweise durch die Richtung nach Sūden abgelost. But Thurneysen (T. L. L.) remarks: Sed ab his Latini nominis significatus nimium distat.
The north too, for the same reason, has but one wind. This, called in Latin septentrionarius, in Greek ἀπαρκτίας, or 'from the region of the Bear,' is directly opposite to auster. From this list of eight winds some subtract four, and they declare that they do so on the authority of Homer, Odyss. v. 295, 331. who knows only four winds: eurus, auster, aquilo and favonius, blowing from the four quarters of the heaven which we have named primary, so to speak; for they regard the east and west as broader, to be sure, but nevertheless single and not divided into three parts. There are others, on the contrary, who make twelve winds instead of eight, by inserting a third group

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of four in the intervening space about the south and north, in the same way that the second four are placed between the original two at east and west.

"There are also some other names of what might be called special winds, which the natives have coined each in their own districts, either from the designations of the places in which they live or from some other reason which has led to the formation of the word. Thus our Gauls That is, the Gauls of Gallia Narbonensis. Favorinus was a native of Arelate, the modern Aries. call the wind which blows from their land, the most violent wind to which they are exposed, circius, doubtless from its whirling and stormy character; the Apulians give the name Iapyx—the name by which they themselves are known (Iapzyges)—to the wind that blows from the mouth of Ἰαπυγία itself, from its inmost recesses, as it were. Text and meaning are very uncertain. No satisfactory explanation of ore or sinibus has been offered, so far as I know. Apuleius, De Mundo 14, says: Apuli Iapagem eum venture ) ex Iapygae sinu, id est ex ipso Gargano venientem (appellant). This is, I think, about the same as caurus; for it is a west wind and seems to blow from the quarter opposite eurus. Therefore Virgil says Aen. viii. 709. that Cleopatra, when fleeing to Egypt after the sea-fight, was borne onward by Iapyx, and he called Aen. xi. 678. an Apulian horse by the same name as the wind, that is, Iapyx. There is also a wind named caecias, which, according to Aristotle Meteor. ii. 6; Prob. xxvi. 29. blows in such a way as not to drive away clouds, but to attract them. This, he says, is the origin of the proverbial line: Trag. fr. adesp. 75, Nauck.2 Attracting to oneself, as caecias does the clouds.

Moreover, besides these which I have mentioned there are in various places other names of winds, of new coinage and each peculiar to its own region,

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for example the Atabulus of Horace; Serm. i. 5. 78. The wind corresponds to the sirocco. Porphyrio, ad loc. gives the fanciful derivation, ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐς τὴν ἄτην βάλλειν πάντα. The Thes. Ling. Lat. connects it with Atabuli, the name of an Aethiopian tribe. these too I intended to discuss; I would also have added those which are called etesiae Periodic, or trade winds, referring especially to the Egyptian monsoon, which blow from the north-west during the whole summer (Herodotus, ii, 20); used also of winds which blow from the north in the Aegean for forty days after the rising of the Dog-star. and prodromi, Preceding the etesiae, and blowing north-north-east for eight days before the rising of the Dog-star. which at a fixed time of year, namely when the dog-star rises, blow from one or another quarter of the heavens; and since I have drunk a good bit, I would have rated on about the meaning of all these terms, had I not already done a deal of talking while all of you have been silent, as if I were delivering 'an exhibition speech.' But for one to do all the talking at a large dinner-party," said he, is neither decent nor becoming.

This is what Favorinus recounted to us at his own table at the time I mentioned, with extreme elegance of diction and in a delightful and graceful style throughout. But as to his statement that the wind which blows from the land of Gaul is called circius, Marcus Cato in his Origins Fr. 93, Peter. calls that wind, not circius, but cercius. For writing about the Spaniards who dwell on this side the Ebro, he set down these words: But in this district are the finest iron and silver mines, also a great mountain of pure salt; the more you take from it, the more it grows. The cercius wind, when you speak, fills your mouth; it overturns an armed man or a loaded wagon.

In saying above that the ἐτησίαι blow from one or another quarter of the heavens, although following the opinion of many, I rather think I spoke hastily. Gellius, as he sometimes does elsewhere, refers to Favorinus' statement as if it were his own. Gronovius' proposed change to dixit and dixerit is unnecessary.

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For in the second book of Publius Nigidius' treatise On Wind are these words: Fr. 104, Swoboda. Both the ἐτησίαι and the annual south winds follow the sun. We ought therefore to inquire into the meaning of follow the sun.



Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights (English) (XML Header) [word count] [Gell.].
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