Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights (English) (XML Header) [word count] [Gell.].
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16.4.4arg

In what fashion and in what language the war-herald of the Roman people was accustomed to declare war upon those against whom the people had voted that war should be made; also in what words the oath relating to the prohibition and punishment of theft by the soldiers was couched; and how the soldiers that were enrolled were to appear at an appointed time and place, with some exceptional cases in which they might properly be freed from that oath.

CINCIUS writes in his third book On Military Science Frag. 12, Huschke; 2, Bermer. that the war-herald of the Roman people, when he declared war on the enemy and hurled a spear into their territory, used the following words: Whereas the Hermundulan people and the men of the Hermundulam people have made war against the Roman people and have transgressed against them, and whereas the Roman people has ordered war with the Hermundulan people and the men of the Hermundulans, therefore I and the Roman people declare and make war with the Hermundulan people and with the men of the Hermundulans.

Also in the fifth book of the same Cincius On

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Military Science we read the following: Frag. 13, Huschke; 2, Bremer. "When a levy was made in ancient times and soldiers were enrolled, the tribune of the soldiers compelled them to take an oath in the following words dictated by the magistrate: 'In the army of the consuls Gaius Laelius, son of Gaius, and Lucius Cornelius, son of Publius, and for ten miles around it, you will not with malice aforethought commit a theft, either alone or with others, of more than the value of a silver sesterce in any one day. And except for one spear, a spear shaft, wood, fruit, fodder, a bladder, a purse and a torch, if you find or carry off anything there which is not your own and is worth more than one silver sesterce, you will bring it to the consul Gaius Laelius, son of Gaius, or to the consul Lucius Cornelius, son of Publius, or to whomsoever either of them shall appoint, or you will make known within the next three days whatever you have found or wrongfully carried off, or you will restore it to him whom you suppose to be its rightful owner, as you wish to do what is right.'

Moreover, when soldiers had been enrolled, a day was appointed on which they should appear and should answer to the consul's summons; then an oath was taken, binding them to appear, with the addition of the following exceptions: 'Unless there be any of the following excuses: a funeral in his family or purification from a dead body feriae denicales (from de and nex) are thus described by Paul. Fest. p. 61, Linds.: colebantur cum hominis mortui causa familia purgatur. Graeci enim νέκυν mortuum dicunt. (provided these were not appointed for that day in order that he might not appear on that day), a dangerous disease, See xx. 1. 27. It refers especially to epilepsy, also called morbus comitialis, or election disease, because if anyone present was attacked by it, elections, or other public business, might be postponed; cf. Suetonius, Jul. xlv. 1. or an omen which could not be passed by without expiatory rites, or an anniversary sacrifice which could not

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be properly celebrated unless he himself were present on that day, violence or the attack of enemies, a stated and appointed day with a foreigners; Stranger or foreigner was the original meaning of hostis. if anyone shall have any of these excuses, then on the day following that on which he is excused for these reasons he shall come and render service to the one who held the levy in that district, village or town.'

Also in the same book are these words: Frag. 14, Huschke; 3, Bremer. 'When a soldier was absent on the appointed day and had not been excused, he was branded as a deserter.

Also in the sixth book we find this: Id. 15 and 4. The columns of cavalry were called the wings of the army, because they were placed around the legions on the right and on the left, as wings are on tile bodies of birds. In a legion there are sixty centuries, thirty maniples, and ten cohorts.

16.5V 16.5.5arg

The meaning of vestibulum and the various derivations proposed for the word.

THERE are numerous words which we use commonly, without however clearly knowing what their proper and exact meaning is; but following an uncertain and vulgar tradition without investigating the matter, we seem to say what we mean rather than say it; an example is vestibulum or vestibule, a word frequently met in conversation, yet not wholly clear to all who readily make use of it. For I have observed that some men who are by

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no means without learning think that the vestibule is the front part of the house, which is commonly known as the atrium. Gaius Aelius Gallus, in the second book of his work On the Meaning of Words relating to the Civil Law, says Frag. 5, Huschke; 23, Bremer. that the vestibule is not in the house itself, nor is it a part of the house, but is an open place before the door of the house, through which there is approach and access to the house from the street, while on the right and left the door is hemmed in by buildings extended to the street and the door itself is at a distance from the street, separated from it by this vacant space. Furthermore, it is often inquired what the derivation of this word is; but nearly everything that I have read on the subject has seemed awkward and absurd. But what I recall hearing from Sulpicius Apollinaris, a man of choice learning, is as follows: The particle ve, like some others, is now intensive and now the reverse; for of vetis and vehenens, the former is made by intensifying the idea of age, with elision, Properly syncope; from ve + actas! On vehemens see note on v. 12. 10 (i, p. 414). and the latter from the power and force of the mind. But vescus, which is formed from the particle ve and esca, assumes the force of both opposite meanings. For Lucretius i. 326; see v. 12. 10 and note. uses vescum salem, or ' devouring salt,' in one sense, indicating a strong propensity to eat, Lucilius v. 602, Marx. in the other sense, of fastidiousness in eating. Munro, on Lucr. i. 326, takes vescus in the sense of slowly eating away which would correspond with Lucilius' use of the word. Those then in early times who made spacious houses left a vacant place before the entrance, midway between the door of the house and the street. There those who had come to pay their respects to the master of

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the house took their places before they were admitted, standing neither in the street nor within the house. Therefore from that standing in a large space, and as it were from a kind of 'standing place,' the name vestibule was given to the great places left, as I have said, before the doors of houses, in which those who had come to call stood, before they were admitted to the house. This derivation is correct, but re- is used in the sense of apart. But we shall have to bear in mind that this word was not always used literally by the early writers, but in various figurative senses, which however are so formed as not to differ widely from that proper meaning which we have mentioned, as for example in the sixth book of Vergil: Aen. vi. 273. Before the vestibule, e'en in Hell's very jaws,
Avenging Cares and Grief have made their beds.
For he does not call the front part of the infernal dwelling the 'vestibule,' although one might be misled into thinking it so called, but he designates two places outside the doors of Orcus, the ' vestibule' and the fauces, of which 'vestibule' is applied to the part as it were before the house itself and before the private rooms of Orcus, while fauces designates the narrow passage through which the vestibule was approached. In the Roman house the term faces was applied to the passageway leading from the front door into the atrium. The fauces and the vestibulum formed one continuous passageway, separated by the door, the fauces being inside and the vesti. bulum outside; see Harv. Stud. Class. Phil. i. 1 ff. and most modern handbooks. In § 10 vestibulum is correctly defined; in § 12 the relative positions of fauces and vestibulum are inverted, and both are put outside the door. The vestibulum can properly be said to be approached by the fauces only from within. Virgil probably used fauces in its ordinary sense of jaws.

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