Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 9.3.9 Str. 9.3.13 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 9.4.2

9.3.12

And lower down, when speaking of the Delphians and their origin, he says, that certain persons, called Parnassii, an indigenous tribe, anciently inhabited Parnassus, about which time Apollo, traversing the country, reclaimed men from their savage state, by inducing them to adopt a more civilized mode of life and subsistence; that, setting out from Athens on his way to Delphi, he took the same road along which the Athenians at present conduct the procession of the Pythias; that when he arrived at the Panopeis, he put to death Tityus, who was master of the district, a violent and lawless man; that the Parnassii having joined him informed him of Python, another desperate man, surnamed the Dragon. Whilst he was despatching this man with his arrows, they shouted, Hie Paian; [Note] whence has been transmitted the custom of singing the Pæan before the onset of a battle; that after the death of the Python the Delphians burnt even his tent, as they still continue to burn a tent in memorial of these events. Now what can be more fabulous than Apollo discharging his arrows, chastising Tityi and Pythons, his journey from Athens to Delphi, and his travels over the whole country? If he did not consider these as fables, why did he call the fabulous Themis a woman, and the fabulous dragon a man, unless he intended to confound the provinces of history and fable. His account of the ætolians is similar to this. After having

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asserted that their country was never ravaged at any period, he says, that at one time it was inhabited by ætolians, who had expelled the Barbarians; that at another time, ætolus, together with the Epeii from Elis, inhabited it; [that ætolus was overthrown by the Epeii,] and these again by Alcmæon and Diomedes.

I now return to the Phocians. 9.3.13

Immediately on the sea-coast, next after Anticyra, [Note] and behind [Note] it, is the small city Marathus; then a promontory, Pharygium, which has a shelter for vessels; then the harbour at the farthest end, called Mychus, [Note] from the accident of its situation between Helicon [Note] and Ascra.

Nor is Abæ, [Note] the seat of an oracle, far from these places, nor Ambrysus, [Note] nor Medeon, of the same name as a city in Bœotia.

In the inland parts, next after Delphi, towards the east is Daulis, [Note] a small town, where, it is said, Tereus, the Thracian, was prince; and there they say is the scene of the fable of Philomela and Procne; Thucydides lays it there; but other writers refer it to Megara. The name of the place is derived from the thickets there, for they call thickets Dauli. Homer calls it Daulis, but subsequent writers Daulia, and the words they who occupied Cyparissus, [Note]
are understood in a double sense; some persons supposing it to have its name from the tree of the country, but others from a village situated below the Lycoreian territory. 9.3.14

Panopeus, the present Phanoteus, the country of Epeius, is on the confines of the district of Lebadeia. Here the fable places the abode of Tityus. But Homer says, that the Phæacians conducted Rhadamanthus to Eubœa, in order to see Tityus, son of the earth; [Note]
Od. vii. 324.

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they show also in the island a cave called Elarium, from Elara the mother of Tityus, and an Heroum of Tityus, and some kind of honours are spoken of, which are paid to him.

Near Lebadeia is Trachin, having the same name as that in Œtæ; it is a small Phocian town. The inhabitants are called Trachinii. 9.3.15

Anemoreia [Note] has its name from a physical accident, to which it is liable. It is exposed to violent gusts of wind from a place called Catopterius, [Note] a precipitous mountain, extending from Parnassus. It was a boundary between Delphi and the Phocians, when the Lacedæmonians made the Delphians separate themselves from the common body of the Phocians, [Note] and permitted them to form an independent state.

Some call the place Anemoleia; it was afterwards called by others Hyampolis, [Note] (and also Hya,) whither we said the Hyintes were banished from Bœotia. It is situated quite in the interior, near Parapotamii, and is a different place from Hyampea on Parnassus.

Elateia [Note] is the largest of the Phocian cities, but Homer was not acquainted with it, for it is later than his times. It is conveniently situated to repel incursions on the side of Thessaly. Demosthenes [Note] points out the advantage of its position, in speaking of the confusion which suddenly arose, when a messenger arrived to inform the Prytaneis of the capture of Elateia. 9.3.16

Parapotamii is a settlement on the Cephissus, in the neighbourhood of Phanoteus, Chæroneia, and Elateia. This place, according to Theopompus, is distant from Chæroneia about 40 stadia, and is the boundary between the Ambryseis, Panopeis, and Daulieis. It is situated at the entrance from Bœotia to the Phocians, upon an eminence of moderate height, between Parnassus and the mountain [Hadylium, where there is an open space] of 5 stadia in extent, through which runs the Cephissus, affording on each side a narrow pass. This river has its source at Lila, a Phocian city, as Homer testifies;

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they who occupied Lilæa, near the source of the Cephissus; [Note]
Il. ii. 523.
and empties itself into the lake Copais. But Hadylium extends 60 stadia, as far as Hyphanteium, on which Orchomenus is situated. Hesiod also enlarges on the river and its stream, how it takes through the whole of Phocis an oblique and serpentine course; which, like a serpent, winds along Panopeus and the strong Glechon, and through Orchomenus. [Note]

The narrow pass near Parapotamii, or Parapotamia, (for the name is written both ways,) was disputed in [the Phocian war,] for this is the only entrance [into Phocis]. [Note]

There is a Cephissus in Phocis, another at Athens, and another at Salamis. There is a fourth and a fifth at Sicyon and at Scyrus; [a sixth at Argos, having its source in the Lyrceium]. [Note] At Apollonia, [Note] also, near Epidamnus, [Note] there is near the Gymnasium a spring, which is called Cephissus.



Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 9.3.9 Str. 9.3.13 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 9.4.2

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