Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 6.1.1 Str. 6.1.4 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 6.1.7


We will narrate in a general manner what we have gathered concerning the Leucani, who dwell in the interior, without too much care in distinguishing them from their neighbours, the Samnites. Petilia [Note] is considered as the metropolis of the Leucani, and is still well peopled. It owes its foundation to Philoctetes, who was compelled to quit Melibœa on account of civil dissensions. Its position is so strong, that the Samnites were formerly obliged to construct forts around it for the defence of their territory. The ancient Crimissa, situated near these places, was also founded by Philoc- tetes. Apollodorus, in his description of the ships [of the Greeks], narrates concerning Philoctetes, that, according to certain writers, this prince having disembarked in the district of Crotona, settled on the promontory of Crimissa, and built the city of Chone [Note] above it, from which the inhabitants were called Chones; and that certain colonists being sent by him into Sicily, to the neighbourhood of Eryx, [Note] with ægestus the

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Trojan, founded ægesta. [Note] In the inland districts are also Grumentum, [Note] Vertinæ, [Note] Calasarna, [Note] and other small villages, reaching as far as Venusia, [Note] a city of some importance. This, however, I consider to be a Samnite city, as are also those which are next met with on going into Campania. Above the Thurii lies the district called Tauriana. [Note] The Leucani are of Samnite origin. Having vanquished the Posidoniates and their allies, they took possession of their cities. At one time the institutions of the Leucani were democratic, but during the wars a king was elected by those who were possessed of chief authority: at the present time they are Roman. 6.1.4

The Bruttii occupy the remainder of the coast as far as the Strait of Sicily, extending about 1350 stadia. Antiochus, in his treatise on Italy, says that this district, which he intended to describe, was called Italy, but that previously it had been called Œnotria. The boundary which he assigns to it on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is the river Lao, [Note] and on the Sea of Sicily Metapontium, the former of which we have given as the boundary of the Bruttii. He describes Tarentum, which is next to Metapontium, [Note] as beyond Italy, calling it Iapygian. He also relates that, at a more ancient period, those who dwelt on this side the isthmus, which lies next the Strait of Sicily, were the only people who were called Œnotrians and Italians. The isthmus is 160 stadia across between the two gulfs, namely, that of Hipponium, [Note] which Antiochus called Napitinus, and

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that of Scylletium. [Note] The circumnavigation of the peninsula, which is comprised between this isthmus and the strait, is 2000 stadia. He says that afterwards the names of Italy and of the Œnotrians were extended as far as Metapontium and the Siritis; the Chones, a people of Œnotrian descent, and highly civilized, inhabited these districts, and called their country Chone. However, this author has written in a very loose and old-fashioned manner, without giving any definite boundaries to the Leucani and Bruttii. Now Leucania is situated on the Tyrrhenian and Sicilian Seas, extending on one coast from the Silaro [Note]

to the river Lao, and on the other from Metapontium [Note] to Thurii. Along the continent it stretches from the country of the Samnites, as far as the isthmus between Thurii and Cerilli, [Note] near the Lao. This isthmus is 300 stadia [Note] across. Beyond are the Bruttii, who dwell on the peninsula; in this is included another peninsula, which is bounded by the isthmus between Scylletium [Note] and the Hipponiate gulf. [Note] The nation received its appellation from the Leucani, for they call runaways Bruttii, and they say that formerly they ran away from them when employed as shepherds, and that afterwards their independence was established through the weakness [of the Leucani], when Dion [of Syracuse] was prosecuting a war against [the younger] Dionysius, and fomented hostilities amongst all. [Note] This is all we shall remark as to the Leucani and Bruttii.

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From the Lao the first city is the Temesa [Note] of the Bruttii, which at present is called Tempsa. It was founded by the Ausonians; afterwards the ætolians, under the command of Thoas, gained possession of it. These were expelled by the Bruttii; Hannibal and the Romans have overthrown the Bruttii. [Note] In the vicinity of Temesa is the Heroum of Polites, one of the companions of Ulysses. It is surrounded by a thick grove of wild olives. He was treacherously slain by the barbarians, and became in consequence very wrathful, and his shade so tormented the inhabitants that they submitted to pay him a tribute, according to the direction of a certain oracle. Thus it became a proverb amongst them, Let no one offend the hero of Temesa, for they said that [for a long time he [Note]] had tormented them. But when the Epizephyrian Locrians took the city, they feign that Euthymus the pugilist went out against him, and having overcome him in fight, constrained him to free the inhabitants from tribute. [Note] They say that the poet intended this Temesa, and not the Tamassus [Note] in Cyprus, (for it is said that the words are suitable to either, [Note]

) when he sings,

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in quest of brass
To Temesa. [Note]
Odyssey i. 184.
and certain copper-mines are pointed out near to the place, which are now exhausted. Contiguous to it is Terina, [Note] which Hannibal destroyed, when he found he could no longer retain it; at the time when he took refuge in the country of the Bruttii. [Note] Next in order comes Cosentia, [Note] the metropolis of the Bruttii. A little above it is Pandosia, which is strongly fortified, before which Alexander the Molossian king was overthrown. This prince was led astray by the oracle of Dodona, which commanded him to avoid Acheron and Pandosia; [Note]

for places with names like these being pointed out in Thesprotia, caused him to lose his life [Note] here. The position has three summits, and the river Acheron flows by it. He was also mistaken in another oracle, O Pandosia, thou three-topp'd hill,
Hereafter many people thou shalt kill;
for he thought that it foreshowed the destruction of his enemies, and not of his own people. They say that Pandosia [Note]

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was formerly the residence of the Œnotrian kings. After Cosentia is Hipponium, [Note] founded by the Locrians. [Note] The Romans took it from the Bruttii, who were in possession of it at a subsequent period, and changed the name into Vibo-Valentia. [Note] And because the meadows in its vicinity are luxuriant and full of flowers, it is supposed that Proserpine came over from Sicily to gather them, and from thence the custom among women of this city, to gather flowers and plait garlands, prevailed to such an extent, that they now think it shameful to wear purchased garlands at the festivals. [Note] It also possesses a harbour [Note] made by Agathocles, [Note] the tyrant of Sicily, when he was in possession of the town. On sailing hence to the Portus Herculis, [Note] we come to the point where the headlands of Italy, as they stretch towards the Strait [of Sicily], begin to turn westward. In this voyage we pass Medma, [Note] a city of the same Locrians, [Note] which bears the name of a copious fountain, and possessing at a short distance a naval station, called Emporium. [Note] Very nigh is the river Metauro, [Note] as also a naval station bearing the same name. [Note] The Lipari Isles lie off this coast; they are distant 200 stadia from the strait. They say that they are the islands of æolus, of whom the poet makes

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mention in the Odyssey. [Note] They are seven in number, and are all easily distinguished both from Sicily and the coast of the continent about Medma. We will speak of them in particular when we describe Sicily. After the river Metaurus, there is another Metaurus. [Note] Next in order is Scyllæum, an elevated cliff nearly surrounded by the sea. But connected with the main-land by a low isthmus easily accessible on either side, which Anaxilaus, the tyrant of Rhegium, fortified against the Tyrrheni, and formed a commodious haven, and thus prevented the pirates from passing through the strait. Next to the Scyllæan promontory was that of Cænys, distant from Medma 250 stadia. It is the last headland, and forms the narrowest part of the Strait [of Sicily], being opposite to Cape Pelorus on the Sicilian side, which is one of the three points which give to that island the form of a triangle. Its aspect is towards the rising of the sun in summer, whilst that of Cænys looks towards the west. Indeed they both seem to have diverged from the general line of coast in order to stand out opposite each other. [Note] From Cænys to the Posidonium [Note] [and] the Columna Rheginorum, [Note] the narrow part of the strait stretches as much as 6 stadia, the shortest passage across the strait is a little more. From the Columna [Rhegi-

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norum] to Rhegium, where the strait begins to widen, is a hundred [stadia] as you advance in a direction towards the exterior and eastern sea, which is called the sea of Sicily.

Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 6.1.1 Str. 6.1.4 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 6.1.7

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