Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 5.2.7 Str. 5.2.9 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 5.3.1


Along the whole coast between Poplonium and Pisa these islands are clearly visible; they are oblong, and all three nearly parallel, [Note] running towards the south and Libya. æthalia is by far smaller than either of the other two. The chorographer says that the shortest passage from Libya to Sardinia is 300 [Note] miles. After Poplonium is the city of Cossæ, situated at a short distance from the sea: there is at the head of the bay a high hill upon which it is built; below it lies the port of Hercules, [Note] and near to it a marsh formed by the sea. [Note] At the summit of the cape which commands the gulf is a lookout for thunnies; for the thunny pursues his course along the coast, from the Atlantic Ocean as far as Sicily, in search not only of acorns, but also of the fish which furnishes the purple dye. As one sails along the coast from Cossæ to Ostia

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there are the towns of Gravisci, [Note] Pyrgi, [Note] Alsium, [Note] and Fregena. [Note] [From Cossæ] to Gravisci is a distance of 300 stadia, and between them is the place named Regis-Villa. This is said to have been the royal residence of Maleos the Pelasgian; they report that after he had reigned here for some time, he departed with his Pelasgians to Athens. These were of the same tribe as those who occupied Agylla. From Gravisci to Pyrgi is a little less than 180 stadia, and the sea-port town of the Cæretani is 30 stadia farther. [Pyrgi] contains a temple of Ilethyia [Note] founded by the Pelasgi, and which was formerly rich, but it was plundered by Dionysius the tyrant of the Sicilians, at the time [Note] of his voyage to Cyrnus. [Note] From Pyrgi to Ostia is 260 stadia; between the two are Alsium and Fregena. Such is our account of the coast of Tyrrhenia. 5.2.9

In the interior of the country, besides the cities already mentioned, there are Arretium, [Note] Perusia, [Note] Volsinii, [Note] Sutrium; [Note] and in addition to these are numerous small cities, as Blera, [Note] Ferentinum, [Note] Falerium, [Note] Faliscum, [Note] Nepita, [Note] Statonia, [Note] and many others; some of which exist in their original state, others have been colonized by the Romans, or partially ruined by them in their wars, viz. those they frequently waged against the Veii [Note] and the Fidenæ. [Note] Some say that the inhabitants of Falerium are not Tyrrhenians, but Falisci, a distinct nation; others state further, that the Falisci speak a language peculiar to themselves; some again would make it æquum-Faliscum on

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the Via Flaminia, lying between Ocricli [Note] and Rome. Below Mount Soracte [Note] is the city of Feronia, having the same name as a certain goddess of the country, highly reverenced by the surrounding people: here is her temple, in which a remarkable ceremony is performed, for those possessed by the divinity pass over a large bed of burning coal and ashes barefoot, unhurt. A great concourse of people assemble to assist at the festival, which is celebrated yearly, and to see the said spectacle. Arretium, [Note] near the mountains, is the most inland city: it is distant from Rome 1200 stadia: from Clusium [Note] [to Rome] is 800 stadia. Near to these [two cities] is Perusia. [Note] The large and numerous lakes add to the fertility of this country, [Note] they are navigable, and stocked with fish and aquatic birds. Large quantities of typha, [Note] papyrus, and anthela [Note] are transported to Rome, up the rivers which flow from these lakes to the Tiber. Among these are the lake Ciminius, [Note] and those near the Volsinii, [Note] and Clusium, [Note] and Sabatus, [Note] which is nearest to Rome and the sea, and the farthest Trasumennus, [Note] near Arretium. Along this is the pass by which armies can proceed from [Cisalpine] Keltica into Tyrrhenia; this is the one followed by Hannibal. There are two; the other leads towards Ariminum across Ombrica, and is preferable as the mountains are considerably lower; however, as this was carefully guarded, Hannibal was compelled to take the more difficult, which he succeeded in forcing after having vanquished Flaminius in a decisive engagement. There are likewise in Tyrrhenia numerous hot springs, which on account of their proximity to Rome, are not less frequented than those of Baiæ, which are the most famous of all. 5.2.10

Ombrica lies along the eastern boundary of Tyrrhenia, and commencing from the Apennines, or rather beyond those mountains, [extends] as far as the Adriatic. For com-

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mencing from Ravenna, the Ombrici inhabit the neighbouring country together with the cities of Sarsina, Ariminum, [Note] Sena, [Note] † and Marinum. † [Note] To their country likewise belongs the river Esino, [Note] Mount Cingulum, [the city of] Sentinum, [Note] the river Metaurus, and the Fanum Fortunæ; [Note] for about these parts are the boundaries which separate ancient Italy and [Cisalpine] Keltica on the side next the Adriatic, although the boundary has frequently been changed by the chief men of the state. First they made the Esino the boundary; afterwards the river Rubicon: the Esino being between Ancona and Sena, and the Rubicon between Ariminum and Ravenna, both of them falling into the Adriatic. At the present day, however, since Italy comprehends the whole country as far as the Alps, we need take no further notice of these limits. All allow that Ombrica [Note] extends as far as Ravenna, as the inhabitants are Ombrici. From Ravenna to Ariminum they say is about 300 stadia. Going from Ariminum to Rome by the Via Flaminia, the whole journey lies through Ombrica as far as the city of Ocricli [Note] and the Tiber, a distance of 1350 stadia. This, consequently, is the length [of Ombrica]; its breadth varies. The cities of considerable magnitude situated on this side the Apennines along the Via Flaminia, are Ocricli on the Tiber, Laroloni, [Note] and Narnia, [Note] through which the Nera [Note] flows. This river discharges itself into the Tiber a little above Ocricli; it is not navigable for large vessels. After these are Carsuli and Mevania, [Note] past which latter the Teneas [Note] flows, by which river the merchandise of the plain is transported in small vessels to the Tiber. There are also other cities well populated, rather on account of the route along which they lie, than for their political importance. Such are Forum Flaminium, [Note] Nuceria [Note] where wooden vases are manufactured, and Forum Sempronium. [Note] Going from Ocricli to Ariminum, on the right of the

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way are Interamna, [Note] Spoletium, [Note] Asisium, [Note] and Camerta, situated in the mountains which bound Picenum. On the other side [Note] are Ameria, [Note] Tuder, [Note] a well-fortified city, Hispellum, [Note] and Iguvium, [Note] near to the passes of the mountain. The whole of this country is fertile, but rather too mountainous, and producing more rye [Note] than wheat for the food of the inhabitants. The next district, Sabina, is mountainous, and borders on Tyrrhenia in like manner. The parts of Latium which border on these districts and the Apennines are very rugged. These two nations [Note] commence from the Tiber and Tyrrhenia, and extend as far as the Apennines which advance obliquely towards the Adriatic: Ombrica extends, as we have said, beyond as far as the sea. We have now sufficiently described the Ombrici.

Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 5.2.7 Str. 5.2.9 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 5.3.1

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