Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
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5.1.9

That Diomedes did hold sovereignty over the country around this sea, [Note] is proved both by the Diomedean islands, [Note] and the traditions concerning the Daunii and Argos-Hippium. [Note] Of these we shall narrate as much as may be serviceable to history, and shall leave alone the numerous falsehoods and myths; such, for instance, as those concerning Phaethon and the Heliades [Note] changed into alders near the [river] Eridanus, which exists no where, although said to be near the Po; [Note] of the islands Electrides, opposite the mouths of the Po, and the Meleagrides, [Note] found in them; none of which things exist in these localities. [Note] However, some have narrated that honours are paid to Diomedes amongst the Heneti, and that they sacrifice to him a white horse; two groves are likewise pointed out, one [sacred] to the Argian Juno, and the other to the ætolian Diana. They have too, as we might expect, fictions concerning these groves; for instance, that the wild beasts in them grow tame, that the deer herd with wolves, and they suffer men to approach and stroke them; and that when pursued by dogs, as soon as they have reached these groves,

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the dogs no longer pursue them. They say, too, that a certain person, well known for the facility with which he offered himself as a pledge for others, being bantered on this subject by some hunters who came up with him having a wolf in leash, they said in jest, that if he would become pledge for the wolf and pay for the damage he might do, they would loose the bonds. To this the man consented, and they let loose the wolf, who gave chase to a herd of horses unbranded, and drove them into the stable of the person who had become pledge for him. The man accepted the gift, branded the horses with [the representation of] a wolf, and named them Lucophori. They were distinguished rather for their swiftness than gracefulness. His heirs kept the same brand and the same name for this race of horses, and made it a rule never to part with a single mare, in order that they might remain sole possessors of the race, which became famous. At the present day, however, as we have before remarked, this [rage for] horse-breeding has entirely ceased.

After the Timavum [Note] comes the sea-coast of Istria as far as Pola, which appertains to Italy. Between [the two] is the fortress of Tergeste, distant from Aquileia 180 stadia. Pola is situated in a gulf forming a kind of port, and containing some small islands, [Note] fruitful, and with good harbours. This city was anciently founded by the Colchians sent after Medea, who not being able to fulfil their mission, condemned themselves to exile. As Callimachus says, It a Greek would call
The town of Fugitives, but in their tongue
'Tis Pola named.
The different parts of Transpadana are inhabited by the Heneti and the Istrii as far as Pola; above the Heneti, by the Carni, the Cenomani, the Medoaci, and the Symbri. [Note] These nations were formerly at enmity with the Romans, but the Cenomani and Heneti allied themselves with that nation, both prior to the expedition of Hannibal, when they waged war with the Boii and Symbrii, [Note] and also after that time. 5.1.10

Cispadana comprehends all that country enclosed be-

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tween the Apennines and the Alps as far as Genoa and the Vada-Sabbatorum. [Note] The greater part was inhabited by the Boii, the Ligurians, the Senones, and Gæsatæ; but after the depopulation of the Boii, and the destruction of the Gæsatæ and Senones, the Ligurian tribes and the Roman colonies alone remained. The nation of the Ombrici [Note] and certain of the Tyrrheni are also mixed amongst the Romans. These two nations, before the aggrandizement of the Romans, had some disputes with each other concerning precedence. Having only the river Tiber between, it was easy to commence war upon each other; and if the one sent out an expedition against any nation, it was the ambition of the other to enter the same country with an equal force. Thus, the Tyrrheni, having organized a successful expedition against the barbarians [dwelling in the countries] about the Po, but having speedily lost again through their luxury [all they had acquired], the Ombrici made war upon those who had driven them out. Disputes arose between the Tyrrheni and Ombrici concerning the right of possessing these places, and both nations founded many colonies; those, however, of the Ombrici were most numerous, as they were nearest to the spot. When the Romans gained the dominion, they sent out colonies to different parts, but preserved those which had been formerly planted by their predecessors. And although now they are all Romans, they are not the less distinguished, some by the names of Ombri and Tyrrheni, others by those of Heneti, Ligurians, and Insubri. 5.1.11

Both in Cispadana and around the Po there are some fine cities. Placentia [Note] and Cremona, situated about the middle of the country, are close to each other. Between these and Ariminum, [Note] are Parma, Mutina, [Note] and Bononia, [Note] which is near to Ravenna; amongst these are smaller cities on the route to Rome, as Acara, [Note] Rhegium-Lepidum, [Note] Macri-Campi, [Note] where a public festival is held every year, Claterna, [Note] Forum- Cornelium; [Note] while Faventia [Note] and Cæsena, situated near to the river Savio [Note] and the Rubicon, [Note] are adjacent to Ariminum.

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Ariminum, like Ravenna, is an ancient colony of the Ombri. but both of them have received also Roman colonies. An- minum has a port and a river [Note] of the same name as itself. From Placentia to Ariminum there are 1300 stadia. About 36 miles above Placentia, towards the boundaries of the kingdom of Cottius, is the city of Ticinum, [Note] by which flows a river [Note] bearing the same name, which falls into the Po, while a little out of the route are Clastidium, [Note] Derthon, [Note] and Aquæ-Statiellæ. [Note] But the direct route as far as Ocelum, [Note] along the Po and the Doria Riparia, [Note] is full of precipices, intersected by numerous other rivers, one of which is the Durance, [Note] and is about 160 miles long. Here commence the Alpine mountains and Keltica. [Note] Near to the mountains above Luna is the city of Lucca. Some [of the people of this part of Italy] dwell in villages, nevertheless it is well populated, and furnishes the greater part of the military force, and of equites, of whom the senate is partly composed. Derthon is a considerable city, situated about half way on the road from Genoa to Placentia, which are distant 400 stadia from each other. Aquæ-Statiellæ is on the same route. That from Placentia to Ariminum we have already described, but the sail to Ravenna down the Po requires two days and nights. A [Note] great part of Cispadana likewise was covered by marshes, through which Hannibal passed with difficulty on his march into Tyrrhenia. [Note] But Scaurus drained the plains by navigable canals from the Po [Note] to the country of the Parmesans. For the Trebia meeting the Po near Placentia, and having previously received many other rivers, is over-swollen near this place. I allude to the Scaurus [Note] who also made the æmilian road through Pisa and Luna as far as Sabbatorum, and thence through Derthon. There is another æmilian road, which continues the Flaminian. For Marcus Lepidus and Caius Flaminius being colleagues in the consulship, and having vanquished the Ligurians, the one made the Via Flaminia from Rome across

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Tyrrhenia and Ombrica as far as the territory of Ariminum, [Note] the other, the road as far as Bononia, [Note] and thence to Aquileia [Note] by the roots of the Alps, and encircling the marshes. The boundaries which separate from the rest of Italy this country, which we designate Citerior Keltica, [Note] were marked by the Apennine mountains above Tyrrhenia and the river Esino, [Note] and afterwards by the Rubicon. [Note] Both these rivers fall into the Adriatic.



Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 5.1.7 Str. 5.1.10 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 5.2.1

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