Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 4.6.8 Str. 4.6.12 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 5.1.1


Near to these regions dwell the Iapodes, (a nation now mixed with the Illyrians, and Kelts,) close to them is [the Mount] Ocra. [Note] Formerly the Iapodes were numerous, in- habiting either side of the mountain, and were notorious for their predatory habits, but they have been entirely reduced and brought to subjection by Augustus Cæsar. Their cities are

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Metulum, [Note] Arupenum, [Note] Monetium, [Note] and Vendon. [Note] After these is the city of Segesta, [Note] [situated] in a plain. Near to it flows the river Save, [Note] which discharges itself into the Danube. This city lies in an advantageous position for carrying on war against the Dacians. [Note] Ocra forms the lowest portion of the Alps, where they approach the territory of the Carni, and through which they convey the merchandise of Aquileia in waggons to Pamportus. [Note] This route is not more than 400 stadia. From thence they convey it by the rivers as far as the Danube and surrounding districts, for a navigable river [Note] which flows out of Illyria, passes by Pamportus, and discharges itself into the Save, so that the merchandise may easily be carried down both to Segesta, and to the Pannonians, and Taurisci. [Note] It is near this city, [Note] that the Kulp [Note] falls into the Save. Both of these rivers are navigable, and flow down from the Alps. The Alps contain wild horses and cattle, and Polybius asserts that an animal of a singular form is found there; it resembles a stag except in the neck and hair, which are similar to those of a wild boar; under its chin it has a tuft of hair about a span long, and the thickness of the tail of a young horse. [Note] 4.6.11

One of the passages over the mountains from Italy into Transalpine and northern Keltica is that which passes through the country of the Salassi, and leads to Lugdunum. [Note] This [route] is divided into two ways, one practicable for carriages, but longer, which crosses the country of the Centrones, the other steep and narrow, but shorter; this crosses the Pennine [Alps]. Lugdunum is situated in the midst of the country, serving as an Acropolis, both on account of the confluence of

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the rivers, and of its being equally near to all parts. It was on this account that Agrippa cut all the roads from this [as a centre] one running through the mountains of the Cevennes to the Santones [Note] and Aquitaine, [Note] another towards the Rhine; a third towards the ocean by the country of the Bellovaci [Note] and Ambiani, [Note] and a fourth towards the Narbonnaise and the coast of Marseilles. [Note] The traveller, also, leaving Lugdunum and the country above on his left, may pass over the Pennine Alps themselves, the Rhone, or Lake Leman, into the plains of the Helvetii, whence there is a passage through Mount Jura into the country of the Sequani, and Lingones; here the road separates into two routes, one running to the Rhine, and the other [Note] to the ocean. 4.6.12

Polybius tells us that in his time the gold mines were so rich about Aquileia, but particularly in the countries of the Taurisci Norici, that if you dug but two feet below the surface you found gold, and that the diggings [generally] were not deeper than fifteen feet. In some instances the gold was found pure in lumps about the size of a bean or lupin, and which diminished in the fire only about one eighth; and in others, though requiring more fusion, was still very profitable. Certain Italians [Note] aiding the barbarians in working [the mines], in the space of two months the value of gold was diminished throughout the whole of Italy by one third. The Taurisci on discovering this drove out their fellow-labourers, and only sold the gold themselves. Now, however, the Romans possess all the gold mines. Here, too, as well as in Iberia, the rivers yield gold-dust as well as the diggings,

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though not in such large quantities. The same writer, speak- ing of the extent and height of the Alps, compares with them the largest mountains of Greece, such as Taygetum, [Note] Lycæum, [Note] Parnassus, [Note] Olympus, [Note] Pelion, [Note] Ossa, [Note] and of Thrace, as the Hæmus, Rhodope, and Dunax, saying that an active person might almost ascend any of these in a single day, and go round them in the same time, whereas five days would not be sufficient to ascend the Alps, while their length along the plains extends 2200 stadia. [Note] He only names four passes over the mountains, one through Liguria close to the Tyrrhenian Sea, [Note] a second through the country of the Taurini, [Note] by which Hannibal passed, a third through the country of the Salassi, [Note] and a fourth through that of the Rhæti, [Note] all of them precipitous. In these mountains, he says, there are numerous lakes; three large ones, the first of which is Benacus, [Note] 500 stadia in length and 130 in breadth, the river Mincio flows from it. The second is the Verbanus, [Note] 400 stadia [in length], and in breadth smaller than the preceding;

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the great river Ticino [Note] flows from this [lake]. The third is the Larius, [Note] its length is nearly 300 stadia, and its breadth 30, the river Adda flows from it. All these rivers flow into the Po. This is what we have to say concerning the Alpine mountains.

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Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 4.6.8 Str. 4.6.12 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 5.1.1

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