Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
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I repeat that the Phœnicians were the discoverers [of these countries], for they possessed the better part of Iberia and Libya before the time of Homer, and continued masters of those places until their empire was overthrown by the Romans. This also is an evidence of the wealth of Iberia: in the expedition of the Carthaginians under Barcas, [Note] they found, according to historians, that the people of Turdetania used silver goblets [Note] and casks. One might guess too that it was on account of this great opulence that the men of the country, and their chiefs in particular, were styled long-lived. Wherefore Anacreon thus sings, Neither would I desire the horn of Amalthea, nor to reign over Tartessus one hundred and fifty years. Herodotus too has preserved the name of the king, whom he calls Arganthonius. [Note] The passage of Anacreon must therefore either be understood [of this king], or some other like him; or else more generally thus, nor to reign for a length- ened period in Tartessus. Some writers [Note] are of opinion that Tartessus is the present Carteia. 3.2.15

The Turdetani not only enjoy a salubrious climate, but their manners are polished and urbane, as also are those of the people of Keltica, by reason of their vicinity [to the Turdetani], or, according to Polybius, on account of their

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being of the same stock, but not to so great a degree, for they live for the most part scattered in villages. The Turdetani, on the other hand, especially those who dwell about the Guadalquiver, [Note] have so entirely adopted the Roman mode of life, as even to have forgotten their own language. They have for the most part become Latins, [Note] and received Roman colonists; so that a short time only is wanted before they will be all Romans. The very names of many of the towns at present, such as Pax Augusta [Note] amongst the Keltici, Augusta-Eme- rita [Note] amongst the Turduli, Cæsar-Augusta [Note] amongst the Keltiberians and certain other colonies, are proof of the change of manners I have spoken of. Those of the Iberians who adopt these new modes of life are styled togati. Amongst their number are the Keltiberians, who formerly were regarded as the most uncivilized of them all. So much for these.


STARTING again from the Sacred Promontory, [Note] and continuing along the other side of the coast, we come to the gulf near the Tagus, afterwards Cape Barbarium, [Note] and near to this the outlets of the Tagus, which may be reached by sailing in a straight course for a distance of 10 stadia. [Note] Here are estuaries, one of them more than 400 stadia from the said tower, on a part of which Laccæa is situated. [Note] The breadth of the mouth of the Tagus is about 20 stadia, its depth is so great as to be capable of navigation by vessels of the greatest burden. At the flood-tide the Tagus forms two estuaries in the

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plains which lie above it, so that the plain is inundated and rendered navigable for a distance of 150 stadia. In the upper estuary an island is formed about 30 stadia in length, and nearly equal in breadth, which is fertile, and has excellent vines. The island lies near to Moro, [Note] a city happily situated on a mountain close to the river, and about 500 stadia from the sea. The country surrounding it is very fine, and the ascent [of the Tagus] for a considerable way practicable for vessels of a large size, the remainder is performed in riverboats. Above Moro it is navigable for a yet longer distance. Brutus, surnamed the Gallician, made use of this city as a military station, when fighting against the Lusitanians, whom he subdued. On the sides of the river he fortified Olysipo, in order that the passage up the river and the carriage of necessaries might be preserved unimpeded. These therefore are the finest cities near the Tagus. The river contains much fish, and is full of oysters. It takes its rise amongst the Keltiberians, and flows through the [country of the] Vettones, Carpetani, and Lusitani, towards the west; [Note] to a certain distance it runs parallel with the Guadiana [Note] and Guadalquiver, [Note] but parts from them as they decline towards the southern coast. 3.3.2

Of those who dwell above the aforesaid mountains, the Oretani are the most southern, extending in part as far as the sea-coast on this side the Pillars. Next these towards the north are the Carpetani, then the Vettones and Vaccæi, through whose [country] the Douro [Note] flows as it passes Acontia, [Note] a city of the Vaccæi. The Gallicians are the last, and inhabit for the most part a mountainous country: on this account they were the most difficult to subdue, and furnished his surname to the conqueror of the Lusitanians; in fact, at the present day the greater part of the Lusitanians are beginning to call themselves Gallicians. The finest cities of Oretania are Castulo [Note] and Oria. [Note]

Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 3.2.12 Str. 3.3.1 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 3.3.5

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