Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
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Between this coast, where the Guadalquiver and Guadiana discharge themselves, and the extremities of Maurusia, the Atlantic Ocean forms the strait at the Pillars [of Hercules] by which it is connected with the Mediterranean. Here is situated Calpe, [Note] the mountain of the Iberians who are denominated Bastetani, by others Bastuli. Its circumference is not large, but it is so high and steep as to resemble an island in the distance. Sailing from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic, it is left on the right hand. At a distance of 40 stadia from this [mountain] is the considerable and ancient city of Carteia, formerly a marine arsenal of the Iberians. Some assert that it was founded by Hercules; of this number is Timosthenes, [Note] who tells us it was anciently called Heraclæa, and that vast walls and ship-sheds are still shown. 3.1.8

Next to these is Mellaria, [Note] where they make salted provisions. After this the city and river [Note] of Belo. Here the merchandise and salted provisions for Tingis in Maurusia are principally shipped. There was a city named Zelis [Note] near to Tingis, but the Romans transferred it to the opposite coast [of Spain], and having placed there in addition some of the inhabitants of Tingis, and sent over also some of their own people, they then gave to the city the name of Julia Joza. [Note] Beyond this is Gadeira, [Note] an island separated from Turdetania by a narrow strait, and distant from Calpe about 750 stadia, or, as others say, 800. This island has nothing to distinguish it above others, but owing to the boldness of its people in

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their expeditions by sea, and their friendship with the Ro- mans, has attained to that pitch of good fortune, that although situated at the farthest extremities of the earth, it possesses a greater celebrity than any other island. But we will describe it when we come to speak of the other islands. 3.1.9

Next after [Cadiz] is the port of Menestheus, [Note] and the estuary near to Asta and Nebrissa. [Note] These estuaries are valleys filled by the sea during its flood-tides, up which you may sail into the interior, and to the cities built on them, in the same way as you sail up a river. Immediately after are the two outlets of the Guadalquiver. [Note] The island embraced by these mouths has a coast of a hundred stadia, or rather more according to others. Hereabouts is the Oracle of Menestheus, [Note] and the tower of Cæpio, [Note] built upon a rock and washed on all sides by the sea. This is an admirable work, resembling the Pharos, and constructed for the safety of vessels. For the mud carried out by the river forms shallows, and sunken rocks are also scattered before it, so that a beacon was greatly needed. Thence sailing up the river is the city of Ebura [Note] and the temple of Phosphorus, [Note]

which they call Lux Dubia. [Note] You then pass up the other estuaries; and after these the river Guadiana, which has also two mouths, [Note] up either of which you may sail. Lastly, beyond is the Sacred Promontory, [Note] distant from Gadeira [Note] less than 2000 stadia. Some say that from the Sacred Promontory to the mouth of the Guadiana there are 60 miles; thence to the mouth of the Guadalquiver 100; and from this latter place to Gadeira 70.

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TURDETANIA lies above the coast on this side the Guadiana, [Note] and is intersected by the river Guadalquiver. [Note] It is bounded on the west and north by the river Guadiana; on the east by certain of the Carpetani and the Oretani; on the south by those of the Bastetani who inhabit the narrow slip of coast between Calpe and Gadeira, and by the sea beyond as far as the Guadiana. The Bastetani whom I have mentioned, together with the people on the other side the Guadiana, and many of the places adjacent, belong to Turdetania. The size of this country in its length and breadth does not exceed two thousand stadia, still it contains a vast number of towns; two hundred, it is said. Those best known are situated on the rivers, estuaries, and sea; but the two which have acquired the greatest name and importance are, Corduba, founded by Marcellus, [Note] and the city of the Gaditanians. [Note] The latter for its naval importance, and its alliance with the Romans; and the former on account of its fertility and extent, a considerable portion of the Guadalquiver flowing by it; in addition to this it has been from its commencement inhabited by picked men, whether natives or Romans; and it was the first colony planted by the Romans in these parts.

After this city and that of the Gaditanians, Hispalis [Note] is the most noted. This also is a Roman colony. Commerce is still

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carried on here, although at the present moment the city of Bætis [Note] though not so finely built, is outshining it, on account of the honour it has received from the soldiers of Cæsar taking up their quarters there.

Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 3.1.5 Str. 3.1.9 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 3.2.3

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