Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 2.5.23 Str. 2.5.29 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 2.5.33


We will now describe separately the various countries into which it is divided. The first of these on the west is Iberia, which resembles the hide of an ox [spread out]; the eastern portions, which correspond to the neck, adjoining the neighbouring country of Gaul. The two countries are divided on this side by the chain of mountains called the Pyrenees; on all its other sides it is surrounded by sea; on the south, as far as the Pillars, by Our Sea; and thence to the northern extremity of the Pyrenees by the Atlantic. The greatest length of this country is about 6000 stadia, its breadth 5000. [Note] 2.5.28

East of this is Keltica, which extends as far as the Rhine. Its northern side is washed by the entire of the British Channel, for this island lies opposite and parallel to it throughout, extending as much as 5000 stadia in length. Its eastern side is bounded by the river Rhine, whose stream runs parallel with the Pyrenees; and its southern side commencing from the Rhine, [is bounded] partly by the Alps, and partly by Our Sea; where what is called the Galatic Gulf [Note] runs in, and on this are situated the far-famed cities of Marseilles and Narbonne. Right opposite to the Gulf on the other side of the land, lies another Gulf, called by the same name, Galatic, [Note] look-

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ing towards the north and Britain. It is here that the breadth of Keltica is the narrowest, being contracted into an isthmus less than 3000 stadia, but more than 2000. Within this region there is a mountain ridge, named Mount Cemme- nus, [Note] which runs nearly at right angles to the Pyrenees, and terminates in the central plains of Keltica. [Note] The Alps, which are a very lofty range of mountains, form a curved line, the convex side of which is turned towards the plains of Keltica, mentioned before, and Mount Cemmenus, and the concave towards Liguria [Note] and Italy.

The Alps are inhabited by numerous nations, but all Keltic with the exception of the Ligurians, and these, though of a different race, closely resemble them in their manner of life. They inhabit that portion of the Alps which is next the Apennines, and also a part of the Apennines themselves. This latter mountain ridge traverses the whole length of Italy from north to south, and terminates at the Strait of Sicily. 2.5.29

The first parts of Italy are the plains situated under the Alps, as far as the recess of the Adriatic and the neighbouring places. [Note] The parts beyond form a narrow and long slip, resembling a peninsula, traversed, as I have said, throughout its length by the Apennines; its length is 7000 stadia, but its breadth is very unequal. The seas which form the peninsula of Italy are, the Tyrrhenian, which commences from the Ligurian, the Ausonian, and the Adriatic. [Note] 2.5.30

After Italy and Keltica, the remainder of Europe extends towards the east, and is divided into two by the Danube. This river flows from west to east, and discharges itself into the Euxine Sea, leaving on its left the entire of Germany commencing from the Rhine, as well as the whole of the Getæ,

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the Tyrigetæ, the Bastarni, and the Sauromati, as far as the river Don, and the Lake Mæotis, [Note] on its right being the whole of Thrace and Illyria, [Note] and in fine the rest of Greece.

Fronting Europe lie the islands which we have mentioned. Without the Pillars, Gadeira, [Note] the Cassiterides, [Note] and the Britannic Isles. Within the Pillars are the Gymnesian Islands, [Note] the other little islands of the Phœnicians, [Note] the Marseillais, and the Ligurians; those fronting Italy as far as the islands of æolus and Sicily, and the whole of those [Note] along Epirus and Greece, as far as Macedonia and the Thracian Chersonesus. 2.5.31

From the Don and the Mæotis [Note] commences [Asia] on this side the Taurus; beyond these is [Asia] beyond the Taurus. For since this continent is divided into two by the chain of the Taurus, which extends from the extremities of Pamphylia to the shores of the Eastern Sea, [Note] inhabited by the Indians and neighbouring Scythians, the Greeks naturally called that part of the continent situated north of these mountains [Asia] on this side the Taurus, and that on the south [Asia] beyond the Taurus. Consequently the parts adjacent to the Mæotis and Don are on this side the Taurus. The first of these is the territory between the Caspian Sea and the Euxine, bounded on one side [Note] by the Don, the Exterior Ocean, [Note] and the Sea of Hyrcania; on the other [Note] by the Isthmus where it is narrowest from the recess of the Euxine to the Caspian.

Secondly, but still on this side the Taurus, are the countries above the Sea of Hyrcania as far as the Indians and

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Scythians, who dwell along the said sea [Note] and Mount Imaus. These countries are possessed on the one side by the Mæotæ, [Note] and the people dwelling between the Sea of Hyrcania and the Euxine as far as the Caucasus, the Iberians [Note] and Albanians, [Note] viz. the Sauromatians, Scythians, [Note] Achtæans, Zygi, and Heniochi: on the other side beyond the Sea of Hyrcania, [Note] by the Scythians, [Note] Hyrcanians, Parthians, Bactrians, Sogdians, and the other nations of India farther towards the north. To the south, partly by the Sea of Hyrcania, and partly by the whole isthmus which separates this sea from the Euxine, is situated the greater part of Armenia, Colchis, [Note] the whole of Cappadocia [Note] as far as the Euxine, and the Tibaranic nations. [Note] Further [west] is the country designated on this side the Halys, [Note] containing on the side of the Euxine and Propontis the Paphlagonians, Bithynians, Mysians, and Phrygia on the Hellespont, which comprehends the Troad; and on the side of the ægæan and adjacent seas æolia, Ionia, Caria, and Lycia. Inland is the Phrygia which contains that portion of Gallo-Græcia styled Galatia, Phrygia Epictetus, [Note] the Lycaonians, and the Lydians.

Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 2.5.23 Str. 2.5.29 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 2.5.33

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