Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
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Between Chalcedon and Heracleia are several rivers, as the Psillis, [Note] the Calpas, and the Sangarius, of which last the poet makes mention. [Note] It has its source at the village Sangias, at the distance of 150 stadia from Pessinus. It flows through

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the greater part of Phrygia Epictetus, and a part also of Bithynia, so that it is distant from Nicomedia a little more than 300 stadia, where the river Gallus unites with it. The latter river has its source at Modra in Phrygia on the Hellespont, which is the same country as the Epictetus, and was formerly occupied by the Bithynians.

The Sangarius thus increased in bulk, and navigable, although not so formerly, is the boundary of Bithynia at the part of the coast where it discharges itself. In front of this coast is the island Thynia.

In the territory of Heracleia grows the aconite.

This city is distant from the temple at Chalcedon about 1500, and from the Sangarius 500, stadia. 12.3.8

Tieium is now a small town and has nothing remarkable belonging to it, except that it was the birth-place of Philetærus, the founder of the family of the Attalic kings.

Next is the river Parthenius, flowing through a country abounding with flowers; from these it obtained its name. [Note] Its source is in Paphlagonia. Then succeeded Paphlagonia, and the Heneti. It is a question what Heneti the poet means, when he says, the brave Pylæmenes led the Paphlagonians out of the country of the Heneti, where they have a race of wild mules; [Note] for at present, they say, no Heneti are to be found in Paphlagonia. Others say that it is a village on the shore distant ten schœni from Amastris. But Zenodotus writes the verse in this manner, From Heneta, and says that it means the present Amisus. According to others it was a tribe bordering upon the Cappadocians, which engaged in an expedition with the Cimmerians, and were afterwards driven away into Adria. But the account most generally received is, that the Heneti were the most considerable tribe of the Paphlagonians; that Pylæmenes was descended from it; that a large body of this people accompanied him to the Trojan war; that when they had lost their leader they passed over to Thrace upon the capture of Troy; and in the course of their wanderings arrived at the present Henetic territory.

Some writers say that both Antenor and his sons participated in this expedition, and settled at the inner recess of the

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gulf of Adria, as we have said in the description of Italy. [Note] It is probable that this was the cause of the extinction of the Heneti, and that they were no longer to be found in Paphlagonia. 12.3.9

The boundary of the Paphlagonians to the east is the river Halys, which flows from the south between the Syrians and the Paphlagonians; and according to Herodotus, [Note] (who means Cappadocians, when he is speaking of Syrians,) discharges itself into the Euxine Sea. Even at present they are called Leuco-Syrians, (or White Syrians,) while those without the Taurus are called Syrians. In comparison with the people within the Taurus, the latter have a burnt complexion; but the former, not having it, received the appellation of Leuco- Syrians (or White Syrians). Pindar says that the Amazons commanded a Syrian band, armed with spears with broad iron heads; thus designating the people that lived at Themiscyra. [Note] Themiscyra belongs to the Amiseni, [Note] and the district of the Amiseni to the Leuco-Syrians settled beyond the Halys.

The river Halys forms the boundary of the Paphlagonians to the east; Phrygians and the Galatians settled among that people, on the south; and on the west Bithynians and Mariandyni (for the race of the Caucones has everywhere entirely disappeared); on the north the Euxine. This country is divided into two parts, the inland, and the maritime, extending from the Halys as far as Bithynia. Mithridates Eupator possessed the maritime part as far as Heracleia, and of the inland country he had the district nearest to Heracleia, some parts of which extended even beyond the Halys. These are also the limits of the Roman province of Pontus. The remainder was subject to chiefs, even after the overthrow of Mithridates.

We shall afterwards speak of those Paphlagonians in the inland parts, who were not subject to Mithridates; we propose at present to describe the country which he governed, called Pontus. 12.3.10

After the river Parthenius is Amastris, bearing the same name as the princess by whom it was founded. It is

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situated upon a peninsula, with harbours on each side of the isthmus. Amastris was the wife of Dionysius, the tyrant of Heracleia, and daughter of Oxyathres, the brother of the Darius who fought against Alexander. She formed the settlement out of four cities, Sesamus, Cytorum, Cromna, (mentioned by Homer in his recital of the Paphlagonian forces, [Note]) and Tieium, which city however soon separated from the others, but the rest continued united. Of these, Sesamus is called the citadel of Amastris. Cytorum was formerly a mart of the people of Sinope. It had its name from Cytorus, the son of Phrixus, according to Ephorus. Box-wood of the best quality grows in great abundance in the territory of Amastris, and particularly about Cytorum.

ægialus is a line of sea-coast, in length more than 100 stadia. On it is a village of the same name, [Note] which the poet mentions in these lines, Cromna, and ægialus, and the lofty Erythini; [Note]
Il. i. 855.
but some authors write, Cromna and Cobialus.
The Erythini are said to be the present Erythrini, and to have their name from their (red) colour. They are two rocks. [Note]

Next to ægialus is Carambis, a large promontory stretching towards the north, and the Scythian Chersonesus. We have frequently mentioned this promontory, and the Criu-metopon opposite it, which divides the Euxine into two seas. [Note]

Next to Carambis is Cinolis, [Note] and Anti-Cinolis, and Aboniteichos, [Note] a small city, and Armene, [Note] which gave rise to the common proverb; He who had nothing to do built a wall about Armene.
It is a village of the Sinopenses, with a harbour.

Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 12.3.4 Str. 12.3.9 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 12.3.12

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