Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 1.3.19 Str. 1.3.21 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 1.4.2

1.3.20

Demetrius of Callatis, speaking of the earthquakes which formerly occurred throughout the whole of Greece, states that a great portion of the Lichadian Islands and of Kenæum [Note] were submerged; that the hot springs of ædepsus [Note] and Thermopylæ were suppressed for three days, and that when they commenced to run again those of ædepsus gushed from new fountains. That at Oreus [Note] on the sea-coast the wall and nearly seven hundred houses fell at once. That the greater part of Echinus, [Note] Phalara, [Note] and Heraclæa of Trachis [Note] were thrown down, Phalara being overturned from its very foundations. That almost the same misfortune occurred to the Lamians [Note] and inhabitants of Larissa; that Scarpheia [Note] was overthrown from its foundations, not less than one thousand seven hundred persons being swallowed up, and at

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Thronium [Note] more than half that number. That a torrent of water gushed forth taking three directions, one to Scarphe and Thronium, another to Thermopylæ, and a third to the plains of Daphnus in Phocis. That the springs of [many] rivers were for several days dried up; that the course of the Sperchius [Note] was changed, thus rendering navigable what formerly were highways; that the Boagrius [Note] flowed through another channel; that many parts of Alope, Cynus, and Opus were injured, [Note] and the castle of Œum, which commands the latter city, entirely overturned. That part of the wall of Elateia [Note] was thrown down; and that at Alponus, [Note] during the celebration of the games in honour of Ceres, twenty-five maidens, who had mounted a tower to enjoy the show exhibited in the port, were precipitated into the sea by the falling of the tower. They also record that a large fissure was made [by the water] through the midst of the island of Atalanta, [Note] opposite Eubœa, [Note] sufficient for ships to sail in; that the course of the channel was in places as broad as twenty stadia between the plains; and that a trireme being raised [thereby] out of the docks, was carried over the walls. 1.3.21

Those who desire to instil into us that more perfect freedom from [ignorant] wonder, which Democritus and all other philosophers so highly extol, should add the changes which have been produced by the migrations of various tribes: we should thus be inspired with courage, steadiness, and composure. For instance, the Western Iberians, [Note] removed to the regions beyond the Euxine and Colchis, being separated from Arme-

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nia, according to Apollodorus, by the Araxes, [Note] but rather by the Cyrus [Note] and Moschican mountains. [Note] The expedition of the Egyptians into Ethiopia [Note] and Colchis. The migration of the Heneti, [Note] who passed from Paphlagonia into the country bordering on the Adriatic Gulf. Similar emigrations were also undertaken by the nations of Greece, the Ionians, Dorians, Achaians, and æolians; and the ænians, [Note] now next neighbours to the ætolians, formerly dwelt near Dotium [Note] and Ossa, beyond the Perrhæbi; [Note] the Perrhæbi too are but wanderers here themselves. Our present work furnishes numerous instances of the same kind. Some of these are familiar to most readers, but the migrations of the Carians, the Treres, the Teucrians, and the Galatæ or Gauls, [Note] are not so generally known. Nor yet for the most part are the expeditions of their chiefs, for instance, Madys the Scythian, Tearko the Ethiopian, Cobus of Trerus, Sesostris and Psammeticus the Egyptians; nor are those of the Persians from Cyrus to Xerxes familiar to every one. The Kimmerians, or a separate tribe of them, called the Treres, have frequently overrun the countries to the right of the Euxine and those adjacent to them, bursting now into Paphlagonia, now into Phrygia, as they did when, according to report, Midas [Note] came to his death by drinking bull's blood. Lygdamis led his followers into Lydia, passed through Ionia, took Sardis, but was slain in Cilicia. The Kimmerians and Treres frequently made similar incursions, until at last, as it is reported, these latter, together with [their chief] Cobus, were

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driven out by Madys, king of the Scythians. [Note] But enough has been said in this place on the general history of the earth, as each country will have a particular account. 1.3.22

We must now return to the point whence we digressed. Herodotus having observed that there could be no such people as Hyperborean, inasmuch as there were no Hypernotii, [Note] Eratosthenes calls this argument ridiculous, and compares it to the sophism, that there are no epichærekaki, [Note] inasmuch as there are no epichæragathi; [Note] [adding] perhaps there are Hypernotii; since at all events in Ethiopia Notus does not blow, although lower down it does.

It would indeed be strange, since winds blow under every latitude, and especially the southern wind called Notus, if any region could be found where this latter was not felt. On the contrary, not only does Ethiopia experience our Notus, but also the whole country which lies above as far as the equator. [Note]

If Herodotus must be blamed at all, it is for supposing that the Hyperboreans were so named in consequence of Boreas, or the north wind, not blowing upon them. The poets are allowed much licence in their modes of expression; but their commentators, who endeavour always to give us the correct view, tell us that the people who dwelt in the extreme north, were styled Hyperboreans. The pole is the boundary of the northern

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winds, and the equator of the southern; these winds have no other limit.



Strabo, Geography (English) (XML Header) [genre: prose] [word count] [Str.].
<<Str. 1.3.19 Str. 1.3.21 (Greek English(2)) >>Str. 1.4.2

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