The same rapine prevailed also by land.
even at the present day many parts of Hellas still follow the old fashion,
the Ozolian Locrians, for instance, the Aetolians, the Acarnanians, and that
region of the continent;
and the custom of carrying arms is still kept up among these continentals,
from the old piratical habits.
The whole of Hellas used once to carry arms, their habitations being
unprotected, and their communication with each other unsafe;
indeed, to wear arms was as much a part of everyday life with them as with
And the fact that the people in these parts of Hellas are still living in
the old way points to a time when the same mode of life was once equally
common to all.
The Athenians were the first to lay aside their weapons,
and to adopt an
easier and more luxurious mode of life;
indeed, it is only lately that their rich old men left off the luxury of
wearing undergarments of linen, and fastening a knot of their hair with a
tie of golden grasshoppers,
a fashion which spread to their Ionian kindred,
and long prevailed among the old men there.
On the contrary a modest style of dressing, more in conformity with modern
ideas, was first adopted by the Lacedaemonians,
the rich doing their best to
assimilate their way of life to that of the common people.
They also set the example of contending naked, publicly stripping and
anointing themselves with oil in their gymnastic exercises.
Formerly, even in the Olympic contests, the athletes who contended wore
belts across their middles;
and it is but a few years since that the practice ceased.
To this day among some of the barbarians, especially in Asia, when prizes
for boxing and wrestling are offered,
belts are worn by the combatants.
And there are many other points in which a likeness might be shown between
the life of the Hellenic world of old and the barbarian of to-day.
With respect to their towns, later on, at an
era of increased facilities of navigation and a greater supply of capital,
we find the shores becoming the site of walled towns, and the isthmuses
being occupied for the purposes of commerce, and defence against a neighbor.
But the old towns, on account of the great prevalence of piracy, were built
away from the sea, whether on the islands or the continent,
and still remain
in their old sites.
For the pirates used to plunder one another, and indeed all coast
populations, whether seafaring or not.
The islanders, too, were great pirates. These islanders were Carians and Phoenicians,
by whom most of the islands
as was proved by the following fact.
During the purification of Delos by Athens in this war all the graves in
the island were taken up, and it was found that above half their inmates
were Carians: they were identified by the fashion of the arms buried with
them, and by the method of interment, which was the same as the Carians
But as soon as Minos had formed his navy, communication by sea became
as he colonized most of the islands, and thus expelled the malefactors.
The coast populations now began to apply themselves more closely to the
acquisition of wealth, and their life became more settled; some even began to build themselves walls on the strength of their
For the love of gain would reconcile the weaker to the dominion of the
stronger, and the possession of capital enabled the more powerful to reduce
the smaller towns to subjection.
And it was at a somewhat later stage of this development that they went on
the expedition against Troy.