For Themistocles was a man who exhibited the most indubitable signs of
genius; indeed, in this particular he has a claim on our admiration quite
extraordinary and unparalleled.
By his own native capacity, alike unformed and unsupplemented by study, he
was at once the best judge in those sudden crises which admit of little or
of no deliberation, and the best prophet of the future, even to its most
An able theoretical expositor of all that came within the sphere of his
practice, he was not without the power of passing an adequate judgment in
matters in which he had no experience.
He could also excellently divine the good and evil which lay hid in the
In fine, whether we consider the extent of his natural powers, or the
slightness of his application, this extraordinary man must be allowed to
have surpassed all others in the faculty of intuitively meeting an
Disease was the real cause of his death; though there is a story of his having ended his life by poison, on finding
himself unable to fulfil his promises to the king.
However this may be, there is a monument to him in the market-place of
He was governor of the district, the king having given him Magnesia, which
brought in fifty talents a year, for bread, Lampsacus, which was considered
to be the richest wine country, for wine, and Myus for other provisions.
His bones, it is said, were conveyed home by his relatives in accordance
with his wishes, and interred in Attic ground.
This was done without the knowledge of the Athenians; as it is against the law to bury in Attica an outlaw for treason.
So ends the history of Pausanias and Themistocles, the Lacedaemonian and
the Athenian, the most famous men of their time in Hellas.
To return to the Lacedaemonians.
The history of their first embassy, the injunctions which it conveyed, and
the rejoinder which it provoked, concerning the expulsion of the accursed
persons, have been related already.
It was followed by a second, which ordered Athens to raise the siege of
Potidaea, and to respect the independence of Aegina.
Above all, it gave her most distinctly to understand that war might be
prevented by the revocation of the Megara decree, excluding the Megarians
from the use of Athenian harbors and of the market of Athens.
But Athens was not inclined either to revoke the decree, or to entertain
their other proposals; she accused the Megarians of pushing their cultivation into the consecrated
ground and the unenclosed land on the border, and of harboring her runaway
At last an embassy arrived with the Lacedaemonian ultimatum.
The ambassadors were Rhamphias, Melesippus, and Agesander.
Not a word was said on any of the old subjects; there was simply this:— ‘Lacedaemon wishes the peace to continue, and there is no reason
why it should not, if you would leave the Hellenes independent.
Upon this the Athenians held an assembly, and laid the matter before their
It was resolved to deliberate once for all on all their demands, and to
give them an answer.
There were many speakers who came forward and gave their support to one
side or the other, urging the necessity of war, or the revocation of the
decree and the folly of allowing it to stand in the way of peace.
Among them came forward Pericles, son of Xanthippus, the first man of his
time at Athens, ablest alike in counsel and in action, and gave the
‘There is one principle, Athenians,
which I hold to through everything, and that is the principle of no
concession to the Peloponnesians.
I know that the spirit which inspires men while they are being persuaded to
make war, is not always retained in action; that as circumstances change, resolutions change.
Yet I see that now as before the same, almost literally the same, counsel
is demanded of me; and I put it to those of you, who are allowing yourselves to be persuaded,
to support the national resolves even in the case of reverses, or to forfeit
all credit for their wisdom in the event of success.
For sometimes the course of things is as arbitrary as the plans of man; indeed this is why we usually blame chance for whatever does not happen as