For instance, a cup is to Dionysus what a shield is to Ares;
so he will call the cup "Dionysus's shield" and the shield "Ares' cup." Or old age is to life as evening is to day; so he will call the evening "day's old-age" or use Empedocles' phrase [Note]; and old age he will call "the evening of life" or "life's setting sun."
Sometimes there is no word for some of the terms of the analogy but the metaphor can be used all the same. For instance, to scatter seed is to sow, but there is no word for the action of the sun in scattering its fire. Yet this has to the sunshine the same relation as sowing has to the seed, and so you have the phrase "sowing the god-created fire."
Besides this another way of employing metaphor is to call a thing by the strange name and then to deny it some attribute of that name. For instance, suppose you call the shield not "Ares' cup" but a “wineless cup.” . . . [Note] . . .
An invented word is one not used at all by any people and coined by the poet. There seem to be such words, eg. "sprouters" for horns and "pray-er" for priest.
A word is "lengthened" or "curtailed,"