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Every noun is either "ordinary" [Note] or "rare" or "metaphorical" or "ornamental" or "invented" or "lengthened" or "curtailed" or "altered."
An "ordinary" word is one used by everybody, a "rare" word one used by some;
so that a word may obviously be both "ordinary" and "rare," but not in relation to the same people. σίγυνον, [Note] for instance, is to the Cypriots an "ordinary" word but to us a "rare" one.
Metaphor is the application of a strange term either transferred from the genus and applied to the species or from the species and applied to the genus, or from one species to another or else by analogy.
An example of a term transferred from genus to species is "Here stands my ship." Riding at anchor is a species of standing.
An example of transference from species to genus is "Indeed ten thousand noble things Odysseus did," for ten thousand, which is a species of many, is here used instead of the word "many."
An example of transference from one species to another is "Drawing off his life with the bronze" and "Severing with the tireless bronze," where "drawing off" is used for "severing" and "severing" for "drawing off," both being species of "removing." [Note]
Metaphor by analogy means this: when B is to A as D is to C, then instead of B the poet will say D and B instead of D.
And sometimes they add that to which the term supplanted by the metaphor is relative. [Note]