Fear and pity sometimes result from the spectacle and are sometimes aroused by the actual arrangement of the incidents, which is preferable and the mark of a better poet.
The plot should be so constructed that even without seeing the play anyone hearing of the incidents happening thrills with fear and pity as a result of what occurs. So would anyone feel who heard the story of Oedipus.
To produce this effect by means of an appeal to the eye is inartistic and needs adventitious aid,
while those who by such means produce an effect which is not fearful but merely monstrous have nothing in common with tragedy. [Note] For one should not seek from tragedy all kinds of pleasure but that which is peculiar to tragedy,
and since the poet must by "representation" produce the pleasure which comes from feeling pity and fear, obviously this quality must be embodied in the incidents.
We must now decide what incidents seem dreadful or rather pitiable. Such must necessarily be the actions of friends to each other or of enemies or of people that are neither.
Now if an enemy does it to an enemy, there is nothing pitiable either in the deed or the intention,
except so far as the actual calamity goes.
Nor would there be if they were neither friends nor enemies. But when these calamities happen among friends,