Table of Contents

Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve [1900], Syntax of Classical Greek [info] [word count] [Gildersleeve].

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[part 1]

Preface to part I [subsection] § pref1

Syntax of the simple sentence [subsection] § 1

[section 3] [subsection] § 2 Nominative Case § 3: Subject § 4 § 5: Nominative in titles, inscriptions, etc. § 6: Nominative in citations, enumerations, and indefinite predications. § 7: Nominative in Citations of Names: § 8: Nominative in enumerations § 9: Nominative in Indefinite Predications: § 10: Nominative in suspense. § 11: Nominative in exclamations. § 12: Nominative for the vocative. § 13: Nominative in apposition with the vocative. Vocative Case § 14 § 15: ὦ with the vocative. § 16: Position of ὦ. § 17: Normal position: § 18: Exceptional position: § 19: Repetition of ὦ. § 20: Omission of ὦ . § 21: Position of the vocative. § 22: Vocative postpositive: § 23: Vocative prepositive: § 24: Vocative in exclamations. § 25: Predicate vocative.

Forms of the subject. Adjectives § 26 § 27 § 28: Adjectives used substantively. § 29: a. With the article: § 30: b. Without the article: § 31 § 32: Ellipsis of masculine substantives. § 33 § 34 § 35 § 36 § 37: Neuter plural of adjectives and verbals in - τος and - τέος . § 38: Ellipsis of neuter substantives. § 39: Possessive pronoun or possessive genitive with adjectives and participles used substantively. § 40: χρῆμα and πρᾶγμα . Abstract nouns § 41: Abstract noun used as a concrete. § 42: Plural of abstract substantives used distributively. § 43: The distributive singular. Plurals § 44: Plural abstract nouns used concretely.—plural of proper nouns. § 45: Plural of Abstract Nouns: § 46: Plural of Proper Nouns: § 47: Divergent plural expressions. § 48: Plural of feminine names of towns and of parts of the human body. § 49: Names of Towns: § 50: Parts of the Human Body: § 51: Name of the inhabitants as the name of the city. § 52: Pluralis maiestatis. § 53: Plural of courtliness and reserve. § 54: First person plural for the first person singular. § 55: Gender of the first person plural for the singular. § 56: Singular in a collective sense. § 57 § 58 § 59: εἰπέ, φέρε, ἄγε , etc., used in addressing more than one.

Copula εἶναι and γίγνομαι § 60 § 61: Periphrases with γίγνομαι . § 62: Copula as the predicate. § 63 Other verbs § 64: Copulative verbs. § 65: Passive verbs as copulative verbs. § 66: εἶναι combined with a copulative verb. § 67: Previous condition.

Omission of parts of the simple sentence Omission of the subject § 68: Personal pronoun expressed. § 69: Unemphatic ἐγώ and σύ . § 70: Omission of the subject of the third person. § 71: Subject omitted even when there is a sudden change of subjects. § 72: Subject contained in the verb. § 73: θεῖα ῥήματα . § 74: Divine agent expressed. § 75 § 76: Impersonal verbs. § 77 § 79 § 80: One. § 81: Ideal Second Person: § 82: Indefinite subject of the third person plural omitted. Omission of the copula. § 83 § 84: ἐστί and εἰσί : § 85: Other forms of the copula: § 86: In Dependent Clauses: Omission of the verbal predicate. § 87

Concord The three concords. § 88 Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject § 88: The verbal predicate. § 89: The adjective predicate. § 90: Concord when the subject is an infinitive or a sentence, or the verb is impersonal. § 91: Agreement of the predicate with the subject of the leading verb. § 92 § 93: Agreement of the substantive predicate. § 94 § 95 § 96: Substantiva mobilia. General Exceptions § 97: Neuter plural with singular verb. § 98 § 99: Adjective predicate of neuter plural subject. § 100: Neuter dual subject. § 101: Accusative absolute in plural accompanied by a participial predicate in the singular. § 102: Neuter plural with a plural verb. § 103: Neuter plural subject with a dual verb. § 104 § 105: Dual subject with plural verb. § 106 § 107: The dual subject with a plural participial attribute (semi-predication). § 108: Dual genitive absolute with plural participle. § 109: Dual subject and plural predicate adjective. § 110: Dual verb with plural subject. § 112 § 113 § 114 § 115 § 116: Dual number. § 117: Plural subject and singular verb. § 118: Σχῆμα Πινδαρικόν . Special Exceptions § 119 § 120: Nouns of multitude. § 121: Organized number. § 122: Agreement in sense of participle or adjective with subject. § 123: Periphrastic subject. § 124: Agreement of copula with predicate. § 125: Agreement of verb with appositive. § 126: Neuter adjective as the substantive predicate. § 127: Attraction of the demonstrative by the predicate. § 128: In the oblique cases: § 129: Demonstrative not attracted. § 130: Difference between τί and τίς in the predicate. § 131 § 132: τί instead of τίνα . § 133 § 134: Attraction of the superlative predicate. § 135: Superlative Predicate agreeing with the Genitive: § 136: Indefinite subject, referring to a woman, treated as masculine.

Forms of the verbal predicate Voices of the Verb § 137 Active Voice § 138 § 139: Transitive and intransitive verbs. § 140 § 141: Periphrases with γίγνομαι . § 142: Transitive verbs used intransitively. § 143: Infinitive active apparently as a passive. § 144: Causative active. Middle Voice § 145 § 146: Direct reflexive middle. § 147: Indirect middle. § 148: Active for the indirect middle. § 149: Reciprocal middle. § 150: Causative middle. § 151: Active and reflexive. § 152: αὐτὸς ἑαυτόν . § 153: Middle with reflexive forms. § 154 § 155: Middle and accusative of the part affected. § 156: Details of difference between the active and the middle. Passive Voice § 157 § 158: Instrument, means, or cause. § 159: Agent. § 160 § 161 § 162 § 163 § 164 § 165 § 166: Interchange of instrument and agent. § 167: Permissive passive. § 168: Future middle in a passive sense. § 169: Aorist passive for aorist middle. § 170: Passive of middle verbs. § 171: Active serving as a passive. § 172 § 173: Passives of intransitive verbs. § 174: Passive of verbs that take a genitive or dative. § 175 § 176: Impersonal passive of verbs governing an oblique case. § 177: Deponent verbs. § 178: Passive of deponents expressed by periphrasis. Reciprocal expressions. § 179 § 180: Reciprocal Reflexive: § 181: Reciprocal and Reflexive in Contrast: § 182: Repetition of cognates.

Mood Defined [subsection] § 183

Tenses Tense in general § 184 § 185 § 186 § 187 § 188: Table of Temporal Relations Present Tense § 189: Specific present. — universal present. § 190: Universal Present: § 191: Present participle combined with copula. § 192: Conative present. present of endeavor. § 193: Other Moods and Verbals: § 194: Present anticipating the future. — praesens propheticum. § 195: εἶμι . § 196: Optative, Infinitive, and Participle of εἶμι not future: § 197: Indicative as a present: § 198: Present in passionate questions. § 199: Historical present. § 200 § 201: Annalistic or note-book present. § 202: Present of unity of time. § 203: Perfect of unity of time. § 204: Present for perfect. Imperfect Tense § 205 § 206: Imperfect with adverb of rapidity. § 207: Descriptive imperfect. § 208: Imperfect with definite numbers. § 209 § 210 § 211: Imperfect and aorist interwoven. § 212: Interchange of imperfect and aorist. § 213: Imperfect of endeavor. § 214: Imperfect of endeavor combined with aorist of attainment. § 215: ἔμελλον with infinitive. § 216: Negative imperfect. § 217 § 218: Imperfect of points assumed. § 219: Imperfect of former views. § 220: Imperfect of sudden appreciation of real state of affairs.—imperfect for present. § 221: Origin of modal ἔδει, ἐχρῆν , etc. § 222: Imperfect of unity of time. § 223 § 224: Imperfect apparently used as a pluperfect. § 225: Imperfect of ἥκειν and οἴχεσθαι used aoristically. Perfect Tense § 226 § 227 § 228: Perfect of maintenance of result. § 229: Intensive perfect. § 230: Emotional Perfects: § 231: Verbs of Sight: § 232: Verbs of Gesture, Expression, and the like: § 233: Perfect of an action that is dated. § 234: Perfect for future perfect. Pluperfect Tense § 235 § 236: Pluperfect of rapid relative completion. § 237: Pluperfect used as an imperfect. Aorist Tense § 238 § 239: Ingressive aorist. § 240 § 241: Ingressive translation of second aorist. § 242: So with the moods and verbals: § 243: Aorist of actions of long duration. § 244: So of the Moods: § 245: Aorist of total negation. § 246 § 247 § 248: The aorist for the perfect. § 249 § 250 § 251 § 252 § 253: Aorist translated by the pluperfect. § 254 § 255: Gnomic aorist. § 256: Aorist of comparison. § 257: Gnomic perfect and future. § 258 § 259: Empirical aorist. § 260: Aorist in general descriptions. § 261: Aorist in passionate questions. § 262: Aorist where english uses present. § 263: Aorist of the future. § 264: Imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect side by side. Future Tense § 265 § 266 § 267: Modal nature of the future. § 268: Future in deliberative questions. § 269: Imperative use of the future. § 270: μή and the future indicative in prohibitions. § 271: οὐ with future indicative in questions as imperative. § 272: Periphrastic future with μέλλω , § 273: μέλλω with the Future Infinitive: § 274: μέλλω with the Present Infinitive: § 275: μέλλω with the Present and the Future Infinitive: § 276: μέλλω with the Aorist Infinitive: § 277: μέλλω , I postpone. § 278: With the aorist infinitive: Future Perfect Tense § 279 § 280: Future perfect active. § 281: Future perfect middle used passively. § 282: Future perfect in an imperative sense. § 283: Future perfect used as a future. § 284: Periphrastic future perfect middle. Periphrastic Tenses § 285 § 286: Periphrases with the perfect participle. § 287 § 288: Perfect participle with εἴην ἄν . § 289: Perfect participle parallel with an adjective. § 290: Perfect participle as predicate of the participle of εἰμί . § 291: Periphrasis with the present participle. § 292: Present Participle parallel with an Adjective: § 293: Periphrases with the aorist participle. § 294: Aorist participle with forms of φαίνομαι . § 295: Periphrastic aorist participle with ἔχω . § 296: Periphrastic perfect participle with ἔχω . Epistolary Tenses § 297 § 298

Tenses of the Moods [subsection 19] § 299 § 300 § 301 § 302 Tenses of the Imperative § 303 Tenses of the Subjunctive § 304 Tenses of the Pure Optative § 305 Tenses of the Optative with ἄν § 306 Tenses of the Optative as Representative of the Indicative § 307 § 308: Aorist Optative (= Aorist Indicative): § 309: Perfect Optative (= Perfect Indicative): § 310: Future Optative (= Future Indicative): § 311: Retention of imperfect and pluperfect indicative in oratio obliqua. § 312: Present optative representing imperfect indicative. Tenses of the Infinitive § 313: Infinitive as a verbal noun Infinitive as a subject § 314 § 315 § 316 § 317 § 318 § 319 Infinitive as an object § 320 § 321 § 322 § 323 § 324 § 325 § 326: Future with verbs of creation. Infinitive as the representative of the indicative § 327 § 328: Articular infinitive as the representative of the indicative. Tenses of the Participle § 329: Participle as a verbal adjective Present participle § 330: Contemporaneous action. § 331: Leading Verb Present: § 332: Leading Verb Imperfect: § 333: Leading Verb Future: § 334: Leading Verb Aorist: § 335: Leading Verb Perfect: § 336: Leading Verb Pluperfect: § 337: Prior action. § 338: Subsequent action. Aorist participle § 339 § 340: Leading Verb Present: § 341: Leading Verb Imperfect: § 342: Leading Verb Future: Prior Action § 343: Leading Verb Future: Coincident Action: § 344: Leading Verb Aorist: Prior Action § 345: Leading Verb Aorist: Coincident Action: § 346: Leading Verb Perfect: § 347: Leading Verb Pluperfect: Perfect participle § 348 § 349: Leading Verb Imperfect: § 350: Leading Verb Aorist: § 351: Leading Verb Perfect: § 352: Leading Verb Future: § 353: Leading Verb Pluperfect: Participle as the representative of the indicative § 354 § 355: Present participle. § 356: Contemporaneous Action after an Historical Tense = Imperfect Indicative: § 357: Prior Action = Imperfect Indicative: § 358 § 359 § 360

Moods Indicative Mood § 361 § 362: Use of the indicative. § 363: Expression of possibility, power, obligation, and necessity. § 364: ἔδει, ἐχρῆν , etc., of the present. § 365: Indicative in generic sentences. § 366: Non-use of certain tenses of the indicative with temporal particles. § 367: Indicative in wishes. § 368: Indicative in other than simple sentences. Subjunctive Mood § 369 § 370: Name of subjunctive. § 371: Theory of the subjunctive. § 372: Imperative subjunctive. § 373: Imperative of the first person. § 374: Singular number: § 375: Imperative subjunctive of second person positive. § 376: Aorist subjunctive in prohibitions. § 377: Theory of μή with the aorist subjunctive in prohibitions. § 378: Present subjunctive third person as negative imperative. § 379: Subjunctive questions (deliberative subjunctive). § 380: First Person: § 381: Second Person: § 382: Third Person: § 383: Substitutes for the deliberative subjunctive. § 384: τί πάθω ; § 385: Subjunctive in half-questions. § 386: Homeric subjunctive. § 387: Subjunctive in dependent clauses. Optative Mood § 388: Optative in wishes. § 389: Potential optative. § 390: Optative in questions. § 391: Tenses of the pure optative. § 392: Aorist Tense: § 393: Perfect Tense: § 394: Imperative optative. § 395: Optative with εἴθε, εἰ γάρ . § 396: Optative with εἰ and ὡς . § 397: Pure optative in relative sentences. § 398: βουλοίμην ἄν . § 399: Optative in semi-dependent and in dependent clauses. § 400: Parallelism of the optative and the infinitive. Imperative Mood § 401 § 402: Tenses of the imperative. § 403 § 404 § 405: Additional remarks on the use of the present and aorist tenses. § 406: Perfect active imperative. § 407: Perfect middle imperative. § 408: Perfect imperative passive. § 409: Second Person: § 410: ἄγε, ἴθι, φέρε with the imperative. § 411 § 412 § 413 § 414: Negative imperative (prohibitive). § 415: Difference between present and aorist in prohibitions. § 416 § 417 § 418: Second Person: § 419 § 420: Equivalents of the imperative. § 421: Representatives of the imperative in oratio obliqua. § 422: Imperative in dependent and in interrogative sentences.

The Particle ἄν Its use and etymology § 423 § 424: Distinctions in the use of ἄν . § 425: Shifting from definite to indefinite. § 426: κεν ( κε ), § 427: Etymology of ἄν . Indicative with ἄν § 428 § 429: Unreal indicative with ἄν . § 430: Indicative with ἄν as potential of the past. § 431: Indicative with ἄν of intermittent action. § 432: ἄν with the future indicative and its representatives. § 433: Non-use of ἄν with present and perfect indicative. Optative with ἄν § 434: Potential optative. § 435: Time and tenses of the potential optative. § 436: ἄν with the Present Optative not of the Past: used of what will be, or what will prove to be. § 437: ἄν with the Present Optative of the Past: § 438: ἄν with the Aorist Optative not of the Past: § 439: ἄν with the Aorist Optative of the Past: § 440: ἄν with the Perfect Optative: § 441: ἄν with the future optative. § 442: Translation of optative with ἄν . § 443: Imperative use of ἄν with optative. § 444: ἄν with the optative combined with the indicative. § 445: The optative with ἄν in questions. § 446: πῶς ἄν with the optative to express a wish. § 447: Optative with ἄν in dependent discourse. § 448: Adherescent ἄν . § 449: ἐάν, ὅταν , etc., with the optative. § 450: Omission of ἄν with the optative.—the pure optative as a potential. Subjunctive with ἄν § 451 § 452: Subjunctive with κεν or ἄν as a form of independent statement. § 453 § 454 § 455 § 456: Omission of ἄν in subjunctive dependent clauses. § 457: ἄν with other moods. § 458: ἄν without a verb. § 459: Position of ἄν and κε ( § 460 § 461 § 462 § 463 § 464 § 465 § 466: Rare position of ἄν in Relative Subjunctive Sentences: § 467: Repetition of ἄν and κε (

[part 2]

Preface to part II [subsection] § pref2

The simple sentence expanded [subsection] § 468

Multiplication of the Subject Concord of the Predicate § 469: Number. § 470: Singular verb with neuter subjects. § 471: Plural verb with neuter subjects. § 472: Predicate in dual. § 473: Singular predicate agreeing with nearest or most important subject. § 474: Subjects connected by comparative ἤ . § 475: μετά with the genitive. § 476: Attraction of predicate. § 477: Unity of subjects. § 478: Σχῆμα Ἀλκμανικόν . § 479: Singular subjects connected by disjunctives. § 480: Plural: § 481: Adjective predicate with combined subjects of different genders. § 482: Combined subjects of different persons. § 483

Qualification of the Subject Attributes of the subject § 484 § 485: Chief Forms of the Attribute § 486: Equivalents of the adjective § 487: Substantives denoting Rank, Age, Trade: The oblique cases § 488: The Genitive Case: § 489: The Dative Case: § 490: Prepositions with their Cases: § 491: Adverbs

Concord of the adjective attribute. The normal rule § 492 Exceptions. § 493 § 494: Plural adjective with dual substantive. § 495: δύο with a plural substantive. § 496: Masculine dual forms used generically for the feminine. § 497: Agreement according to sense. § 498: Variations in participial concord. § 499: Deviations in concord of pronouns. § 500: Agreement with a synonym. § 501: Neuter pronouns referring to masculine or feminine substantives. § 502: Plural of neuter pronouns for the singular. § 503: Agreement of common adjective attribute. § 504: Repetition of the common attribute. Position of the adjective attribute. § 505 § 506: Separation of attribute from substantive. § 507: Position of adjectives used partitively. § 508: Position of common attribute. § 509 § 510 § 511: After the first: § 512: After one of the intermediate substantives: Peculiar forms of the adjective attribute § 513

The Article [subsection 40] § 514 Substantive Use § 515: ὃ μὲν . . . ὃ δέ, ὃ μὲν . . . δέ, μὲν . . . ὃ δέ . § 516: Substantive article preceded by μέν or δέ . § 517: ὃ δέ without an expressed ὃ μέν . § 518: ὃ δέ without reference to ὃ μέν § 519 § 520: ὃ γάρ . § 521: καὶ τόν, καὶ τήν . § 522: ὅς, ἥ, ὅ used like the substantive article. § 523: τὸν καὶ τόν, τὸ καὶ τό, τὰ καὶ τά . § 524 § 525: πρὸ τοῦ . § 526 § 527 § 528: Substantive article unsupported by a particle. § 529: Article as antecedent of the relative. § 530: Article as a relative. Adjective use § 531 Individual or Specific Article § 532 § 533: Article with objects present to the mind. § 534: Possessive article. § 535: Article with numbers. § 536: The article with proper names. § 537: Article with names of persons. § 538: National appellatives, etc. § 539: Article with appositive proper names. § 540: Appositive proper name without article. § 541: Article with names of gods. § 542: Names of gods in oaths. § 543: Use of article in complex of name of god and epithet. § 544: Article with both Name of God and Epithet: § 545: Article omitted with both Name of God and Epithet: § 546: Article with God or Epithet alone: § 547: Article with names of countries. § 548: Addition Thuc. of χώρα, γῆ, μοῖρα . § 549: Ἀσία, Εὐρώπη, Λιβύη . § 550 § 551 § 552 § 553: Article with chorographic genitive and partitive genitive of name of country. § 554: Ommission of article with proper names in prepositional phrases. § 555: Article with names of towns. § 556: Addition of πόλις in herodotus. § 557: Πειραιεύς. § 558: Seas. § 559: Omission and use of article and ποταμός with names of rivers. § 560: Omission and use of article and ὄρος with names of mountains. § 561: Names of islands. § 562: Article with other proper names. Generic article. § 563 § 564: Article of a Type or Class: § 565: Abstract Nouns with the Article: § 566: Abstracts without the Article: § 567: Difference between articular and anarthrous abstract nouns. Absence of the article. § 568 § 569: Prepositional Phrases: § 570: Other Formulae, Proverbs, and Enumerations: § 571: Ordinal Numbers: § 572: Use of βασιλεύς The article with substantivized adjectives and participles. § 573 § 574: Attraction of articular participle or adjective. § 575: Article with adverbs and prepositional and other expressions used as substantives. § 576: Article with Adverbs: § 577: Article with Prepositional Phrases: § 578: οἱ περί ( ἀμφί ) with accusative. § 579: Article with Any Word or Phrase used as a Substantive: § 580: Masculine or feminine article with the genitive case. § 581: Neuter article with the genitive case. § 582: The article with the infinitive. Article in combination with pronouns. § 583 § 584: Article with personal and reflexive pronouns. § 585: Article with interrogatives. § 586: Article with τοιοῦτος and the like. § 587: ὁ ἕτερος . § 588 § 589 § 590 § 591 § 592: ἕτερος ἕτερον . § 593: ὁ ἕτερος ( ἕτερος ) in a bad sense. § 594: ἄλλος, ὁ ἄλλος . § 595 § 596 § 597: ἄλλος = ὁ ἄλλος . § 598: ἄλλος ἄλλον . § 599: ἄλλος and ἕτερος with appositive force. § 600: οἱ πολλοί, οἱ ὀλίγοι , etc. § 601: οἱ πολλοί, ὀλίγοι with demonstrative use of the article. Position of the article. § 602 § 603: Repetition and non-repetition of the article. § 604: Repetition of the Article: § 605: Common Article: § 606: Article with appositions of personal pronouns. § 607: Omission of the Article: The Article in the Combination of Article, Adjective, and Substantive § 608 § 609: Attributive positions. § 610: Examples of First Position: § 611: Second Position: § 612: Third Position: § 613: Rare attributive position. § 614: Attributive adverb. § 615: Difference between attributive adverb and adjective. § 616: Attributive prepositional phrases. § 617: First Attributive Position: § 618: Second Attributive Position: § 619: Third Attributive Position: § 620: Attributive participle. § 621: First Position: § 622: Participle or modifier outside of attributive complex. § 623: Attributive Participle following its Substantive: § 624: Modifier of Participle outside of Complex: § 625: Second Attributive Position of Participle: § 626: Third Position: Predicative position of article, substantive, and adjective. § 627 § 628: Limitations of the predicative position. § 629: Predicative position in phrases that have to do with the person. § 630: Predicative position in prepositional phrases. Predicative positions. § 631 § 632: First Position: § 633: Second Position: § 634: Participle in predicative position. § 635: Seeming attributive or predicative position of καλούμενος, ὀνομαζόμενος, ὤν , and the like. § 636: μέσος, ἄκρος , and the like in predicative position. § 637: ὅλος in predicative position. § 638: ὅλος in attributive position. § 639: ὅλος with anarthrous substantive. § 640 § 641 § 643: Position of πᾶς, ἅπας, σύμπας . § 644: Predicative position of πᾶς , etc. § 645 § 646: ἅπας in Predicative Position: § 647 § 648: Predicative πᾶς ( ἅπας ) meaning § 649: Attributive πᾶς , etc. § 650: οἱ πάντες , etc., with numbers. § 651: πᾶς with anarthrous substantives. § 652: πᾶς with substantives whose article is implicit. § 653: Predicative position of pronominal adjectives. § 654 § 655 § 656 § 657: Anarthrous ἄμφω § 658 § 659 § 660: ἕκαστος . § 661 § 662 § 663: ἑκάτερος . § 664: πότερος, ὁπότερος, οὐδέτερος . § 665: ὅδε, οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος in Predicative Position: § 666: Use and omission of the article with the predicate. § 667: Predicate without the Article: § 668: Predicate with the Article: Article with several attributes. § 669 § 670: Repetition of Article, Both Modifiers either Preceding or Following their Substantive: § 671: Repetition of Article, One of the Modifiers Following its Substantive: § 672: Article Not Repeated, All the Modifiers Being in the Attributive Position: § 673: Apparent Predicative Position of One of the Attributes: § 674: Pseudo-attributive position of predicative adjectives.

[notes]


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