Harry Thurston Peck [1898], Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (Trustees of Tufts University, New York) [word count] [harpers_cls_ant1].
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-- 119 --

ornaments, originally decorated the Arch of Trajan.

[unresolved image link] Arch of Augustus at Aosta.

See Burn, Rome and the Campagna; Middleton, Ancient Rome in 1885; id. Remains of Ancient Rome 1892); and the article crossArchitectura.

Ardalus

(Ἄρδαλος). A son of Hephaestus, and the reputed inventor of the pipe, whence the Muses, to whom he gave it, are called Ardalides (Pausan. ii. 21).

Ardanion

(ἀρδάνιον). A vessel of water placed at the door of a house in which a dead person was lying, in order that those leaving might purify themselves by sprinkling with the water. See Aristoph. Eccles. 1033.

Ardea

The chief town of the Rutuli in Latium, situated about three miles from the sea, one of the most ancient places in Italy, and the capital of Turnus. It was conquered and colonized by the Romans B.C. 442 (Livy, iv. 9).

Arduenna Silva

The Ardennes, a vast forest in the northeast of Gaul, extending from the Rhine and the Treviri to the Nervii and Remi, and north as far as the Scheldt ( Tac. Ann.viii. 42).

Area

Any open space (purus locus). (1) A site

[unresolved image link] Area before a Sepulchre. (Villa Corsini, Rome.)
for a building.

(2) The site of a house pulled down in consequence of its owner's treason and devoted to religious uses ( Ad Att. iv. 1, 2).

(3) An open space in front of a temple, house, sepulchre, or public building.

(4) A market-place.

(5) A threshing-floor (ἁλῶς).

Aregonis

(Ἀρηγονίς). The mother of [ERROR: no link cross:]Mopsus (q.v.) by Ampyx.

Areiopagus

See crossAreopagus.

Arelate, Arelas

or Arelātum. Now Arles; a town in Gallia Narbonensis, at the head of the delta of the Rhone, on the left bank, and a Roman colony. The Roman remains at Arles attest the greatness of the ancient city: there are still the ruins of an aqueduct, theatre, amphitheatre, etc.

Aremorica

See crossArmorica.

Arena

(1) Sand, a subject to which Vitruvius (ii. 4) has devoted a chapter.

(2) See crossAmphitheatrum.

Arenarii

Gladiators fighting in the arena. See [ERROR: no link cross:]Gladiatores.

Areopagus

(Ἄρειος πάγος). The hill of crossAres (q.v.). A rocky eminence lying to the west of the Athenian Acropolis. To account for the name, various stories were told. Thus, some said that it was so called from the Amazons, the daughters of Ares, having encamped there when they attacked Athens; others again, as Aeschylus, from the sacrifices there offered by them to that god; while the more received opinion connected the name with the legend of Ares having been brought to trial there by Poseidon for the murder of his son, [ERROR: no link cross:]Halirrhothius (q.v.).

To no legend, however, did the place owe its fame, but rather to the ancient criminal court or council (ἡ ἐν Ἀρείῳ πάγῳ βουλή) which held its sittings there, and sometimes received the name of ἡ ἄνω βουλή, to distinguish it from the Solonian Senate of Four Hundred, or the later Clisthenian Senate of Five Hundred. Solon's legislation raised the Areopagus into one of the most powerful bodies by transferring to it the greater part of the jurisdiction of the [ERROR: no link cross:]Ephetae (q.v.), as well as the supervision of the entire public administration, the conduct of magistrates, the transactions of the popular assembly, religion, laws, morals, and discipline, and giving it power to call even private persons to account for offensive behaviour. See [ERROR: no link cross:]Solonian Constitution.

Ares

(Ἄρης). The Greek name for the god of war, son of Zeus by Heré, whose quarrelsome temper Homer supposes to have passed over to her son so effectively that he delighted in nothing but battle and bloodshed. His insatiable thirst for blood makes him hateful to his father and to all the gods, especially Athené. His favourite haunt

[unresolved image link] Head of Ares. (Glyptothek, Munich.)
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Harry Thurston Peck [1898], Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (Trustees of Tufts University, New York) [word count] [harpers_cls_ant1].
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