Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Many accusatives marking limitations of the verbal action serve the same function as adverbs.


Most of these adverbial accusatives are accusatives of the internal object: thus, in τέλος δὲ εἶπε but at last he said, τέλος is to be regarded as standing in apposition to an unexpressed object of the verb—words, which were the end. Many adverbial accusatives are thus accusatives in apposition ( cross991) and some are accusatives of respect ( cross1600). It is impossible to apportion all cases among the varieties of the accusatives; many may be placed under different heads. The use of adjectives as adverbs (μέγα πλούσιος very rich) is often derived from the cognate accusative with verbs (μέγα πλουτεῖν).


Manner.—τρόπον τινά in some way, τίνα τρόπον in what way? τόνδε (τοῦτον) τὸν τρόπον in this way, πάντα τρόπον in every way (also παντὶ τρόπῳ), τὴν ταχίστην (ὁδόν) in the quickest way, τὴν εὐθεῖαν (ὁδόν) straightforward, προῖκα, δωρεά_ν gratis ( cross1616), δίκην after the fashion of (δίκην τοξότου like an archer P. L. 705e), πρόφασιν in pretence (ἔπλεε πρόφασιν ἐπ' Ἑλλησπόντου he sailed professedly for the Hellespont Hdt. 5.33), χάριν for the sake of (lit. favour) : οὐ τὴν Ἀθηναίων χάριν ἐστρατεύοντο did not engage in the expedition out of good will to the Athenians Hdt. 5.99, τοῦ χάριν for what reason? Ar. Plut. 53, τὴν σὴν ἥκω χάριν for thy sake I have come S. Ph. 1413. Cp. cross993.


Measure and Degree.—μέγα, μεγάλα greatly, πολύ, πολλά much, τὸ πολύ, τὰ πολλά for the most part, ὅσον as much as, οὐδέν, μηδέν not at all, τοσοῦτον so much, τὶ somewhat, ἀρχήν or τὴν ἀρχήν at all with οὐ or μή (ἐν τῷ παραχρῆμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἀρχὴν ὀρθῶς βουλεύεσθαι it is utterly impossible to deliberate correctly offhand Ant. 5.73).


Motive.—τί why? τοῦτο, ταῦτα for this reason (cognate accus.): τί ἦλθες quid (cur) venisti = τίνα ἷξιν ἦλθες; τοῦτο χαίρω ( = ταύτην τὴν χαρὰ_ν χαίρω) therefore I rejoice, αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἥκω for this very reason have I come P. Pr. 310e, τοῦτ' ἄχθεσθε for this reason you are vexed X. A. 3.2.20.


Time and Succession ( cross1582): τὸ νῦν now, τὸ πάλαι of old, πρότερον before, τὸ πρότερον the former time, πρῶτον first, τὸ κατ' ἀρχά_ς in the beginning, τὸ πρῶτον in the first place, τὸ τελευταῖον in the last place (for τὸ δεύτερον in a series use ἔπειτα or ἔπειτα δέ), τὸ λοιπόν for the future, ἀκμήν at the point, just, καιρόν in season.

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A compound expression, consisting of the accusative of an abstract substantive and ποιεῖσθαι, τίθεσθαι, ἔχειν, etc., is often treated as a simple verb; and, when transitive, governs the accusative: τὴν χώρα_ν καταδρομαῖς λεία_ν ἐποιεῖτο ( = ἐλῄζετο) he ravaged the country by his incursions T. 8.41, Ἰ_λίου φθορὰ_ς ψήφους ἔθεντο ( = ἐψηφίσαντο) they voted for the destruction of Ilium A. Ag. 814, μομφὴν ἔχω ἓν μὲν πρῶτά σοι ( = ἓν μέμφομαι) I blame thee first for one thing E. Or. 1069, τὰ δ' ἐν μέσῳ λῆστιν ἴσχεις ( = ἐπιλανθάνει) what lies between thou hast no memory of S. O. C. 583. See cross1598. So with other periphrases in poetry: τέκνα μηκύ_νω λόγον ( = μακρότερον προσφωνῶ) I speak at length to my children S. O. C. 1120, εἰ δέ μ' ὧδ' ἀεὶ λόγους ἐξῆρχες ( = ἤρχου λέγειν) if thou didst always (begin to) address me thus S. El. 556.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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