Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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To verbs denoting a state, and to adjectives, an accusative may be added to denote a thing in respect to which the verb or adjective is limited.

a. The accusative usually expresses a local relation or the instrument. The word restricted by the accusative usually denotes like or similar to, good or better, bad or worse, a physical or a mental quality, or an emotion.


The accusative of respect is employed

a. Of the parts of the body: ὁ ἄνθρωπος τὸν δάκτυλον ἀλγεῖ the man has a pain in his finger P. R. 462d, τυφλὸς τά τ' ὦτα τόν τε νοῦν τά τ' ὄμματ' εἶ blind art thou in ears, and mind, and eyes S. O. T. 371, πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς Hom.

N.—The accusative of the part in apposition to the whole ( cross985) belongs here, as is seen by the passive. Cp. τὸν πλῆξ' αὐχένα him he smote on the neck Λ 240 (βάλε θοῦρον Ἄρηα κατ' αὐχένα Φ cross406) with βέβληαι κενεῶνα thou art smitten in the abdomen E 284.

b. Of qualities and attributes (nature, form, size, name, birth, number, etc.): διαφέρει γυνὴ ἀνδρὸς τὴν φύσιν woman differs from man in nature P. R. 453b, οὐδὲ ἔοικεν θνητὰ_ς ἀ_θανάτῃσι δέμας καὶ εἶδος ἐρίζειν nor is it seemly that mortal women should rival the immortals in form and appearance ε 213, ποταμός, Κύδνος ὄνομα, εὖρος δύο πλέθρων a river, Cydnus by name, two plethra in width X. A. 1.2.23 (so with ὕψος, βάθος, μέγεθος), πλῆθος ὡς δισχί_λιοι about two thousand in number 4. 2. 2, λέξον ὅστις εἶ γένος tell me of what race thou art E. Bacch. 460.

c. Of the sphere in general: δεινοὶ μάχην terrible in battle A. Pers. 27, γένεσθε τὴν διάνοιαν transfer yourselves in thought Aes. 3.153, τὸ μὲν ἐπ' ἐμοὶ οἴχομαι, τὸ δ' ἐπὶ σοὶ σέσωσμαι so far as I myself was concerned I was lost, but through you am saved X. C. 5.4.11. Often of indefinite relations: πάντα κακός base in all things S. O. T. 1421, ταῦτα ἀγαθὸς ἕκαστος ἡμῶν, ἅπερ σοφός, ἃ δὲ ἀμαθής, ταῦτα δὲ κακός each one of us is good in matters in which he is skilled, but bad in those in which he is ignorant P. Lach. 194d.

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Very rarely after substantives: χεῖρας αἰχμητής a warrior valiant with (thy) arm π 242, νεα_νίαι τὰ_ς ὄψεις youths by their appearance L. 10.29.


For the acccusative of respect the instrumental dative ( cross1516) is also employed, and also the prepositions εἰς, κατά, πρός, e.g. διαφέρειν ἀρετῇ or εἰς ἀρετήν.


Not to be confused with the accusative of respect is the accusative after intransitive adjectives ( cross1565) or after the passives of 1632.


The accusative of respect is probably in its origin, at least in part, an accusative of the internal object.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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