Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The cognate accusative is of two kinds, of which the second is an extension of the first.


(I) The substantive in the accusative is of the same origin as the verb.

πολλὴν φλυα_ρία_ν φλυα_ροῦντα talking much nonsense P. A. 19c, ξυνέφυγε τὴν φυγὴν ταύτην he shared in the recent exile 21 a, τὴν ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ναυμαχία_ν ναυμαχήσαντες victorious in the sea-fight at Salamis D. 59.97, τὰ_ς ὑποσχέσεις ἃ_ς οὗτος ὑπι_σχνεῖτο the promises which he made 19. 47, ἡ αἰτία_ ἣν αἰτιῶνται the charge they bring Ant. 6.27.

a. Sometimes the verb may be suppressed, as ἡμῖν μὲν εὐχὰ_ς τά_σδε (εὔχομαι) for us these prayers A. Ch. 142.


The cognate accusative occurs even with adjectives of an intransitive character: μήτε τι σοφὸς ὢν τὴν ἐκείνων σοφία_ν μήτε ἀμαθὴς τὴν ἀμαθία_ν being neither at all wise after the fashion of their wisdom nor ignorant after the fashion of their ignorance P. A. 22e, ἀτί_μους ἐποίησαν ἀτι_μία_ν τοιά_νδε ὥστε κτλ.

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they disfranchised them in such a way that, etc. T. 5.34 (ἀτί_μους ἐποίησαν ἠτί_μησαν, cp. cross1598).


Passive: πόλεμος ἐπολεμεῖτο war was waged X. H. 4.8.1.


(II) The substantive in the accusative is of kindred meaning with the verb.

ἐξῆλθον ἄλλα_ς ὁδούς they went forth on other expeditions X. H. 1.2.17, τὸν ἱερὸν καλούμενον πόλεμον ἐστράτευσαν they waged what is called the Sacred War T. 1.112, ἠσθένησε ταύτην τὴν νόσον he fell ill of this disease I. 19.24, ἀνθρώπου φύσιν βλαστών born to man's estate S. Aj. 760.


Passive: πόλεμος ἐταράχθη war was stirred up D. 18.151.


An extension of the cognate accusative appears in poetry with κεῖσθαι, στῆναι, καθίζειν and like verbs: τόπον, ὅντινα κεῖται the place in which he is situated S. Ph. 145, τί ἕστηκε πέτρα_ν; why stands she on the rock? E. Supp. 987, τρίποδα καθίζων sitting on the tripod E. Or. 956.


An attributive word is usually necessary (but not in Hom.); otherwise the addition of the substantive to the verb would be tautologous. But the attribute is omitted:

a. When the nominal idea is specialized: φυλακὰ_ς φυλάττειν to stand sentry X. A. 2.6.10, φόρον φέρειν to pay tribute 5. 5. 7.

b. When the substantive is restricted by the article: τὸν πόλεμον πολεμεῖν to wage the present war T. 8.58, τὴν πομπὴν πέμπειν to conduct the procession 6. 56.

c. When a plural substantive denotes repeated occurrences: ἐτριηράρχησε τριηραρχία_ς he performed the duty of trierarch D. 45.85.

d. In various expressions: Ὀλύμπια νι_κᾶν to win an Olympian victory T. 1.126, τὴν ναυμαχία_ν νι_κῆσαι to be victorious in the sea-fight L. 19.28, θύ_ειν τὰ εὐαγγέλια to offer a sacrifice in honour of good news X. H. 1.6.37.

e. In poetry the use of a substantive to denote a special form of the action of the verb is much extended: στάζειν αἷμα to drip (drops of) blood S. Ph. 783, Ἄρηπνεῖν to breathe war A. Ag. 375, πῦρ δεδορκώς looking (a look of) fire τ 446. This use is common, especially in Aristophanes, with verbs signifying the look of another than the speaker: βλέπειν νᾶπυ to look mustard Eq. 631, βλέπειν ἀπιστία_ν to look unbelief Com. fr. 1. 341 (No. cross309); cp. “looked his faith”: Holmes.


The substantive without an attribute is (rarely) added to the verb as a more emphatic form of statement: λῆρον ληρεῖν to talk sheer nonsense Ar. Pl. 517, ὕβριν ὑβρίζειν to insult grievously E. H. F. 708. Often in Euripides.


The substantive may be omitted, leaving only the adjectival attribute: παῖσον διπλῆν (scil. πληγήν) strike twice (a double blow) S. El. 1415, τοῦτον ἀνέκραγον ὡς ὀλίγα_ς (scil. πληγὰ_ς) παίσειεν they called out that he had dealt him too ( cross1063) few blows X. A. 5.8.12. Cp. cross1028.


Usually an adjective, pronoun, or pronominal adjective is treated as a neuter substantive. Cp. μεγάλ' ἁμαρτάνειν to commit grave errors D. 5.5 with μέγιστα ἁμαρτήματα ἁμαρτάνουσι P. G. 525d. The singular adjective is used in certain common phrases in prose, but is mainly poetical; the plural is ordinarily used in prose.

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ἡδὺ γελᾶν poet. (= ἡδὺν γέλωτα γελᾶν) to laugh sweetly, μέγα (ψεῦδος) ψεύδεται he is a great liar, μέγα φρονήσα_ς ἐπὶ τούτῳ highly elated at this X. A. 3.1.27, μεῖζον φρονεῖ he is too proud 5. 6. 8, τὰ τῶν Ἑλλήνων φρονεῖν to be on the side of the Greeks D. 14.34, μέγιστον ἐδύναντο had the greatest influence L. 30.14, δεινὰ ὑβρίζειν to maltreat terribly X. A. 6.4.2, ταὐτὰ ἐπρεσβεύομεν we fulfilled our mission as ambassadors in the same way D. 19.32, τί βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι; what use does he wish to make of us? X. A. 1.3.18 (= τίνα βούλεται χρεία_ν χρῆσθαι, cp. χρῆσθαί τινι χρείαν P. L. 868b).


Passive: τοῦτο οὐκ ἐψεύσθησαν they were not deceived in this X. A. 2.2.13, ταῦτα οὐδεὶς ἂν πεισθείη no one would be persuaded of this P. L. 836d.


For a cognate accusative in conjunction with a second object, see cross1620.


Note the expressions δικάζειν δίκην decide a case, δικάζεσθαι δίκην τινί go to law with somebody, διώκειν γραφήν τινα indict somebody, φεύγειν δίκην τινός be put on one's trial for something; γράφεσθαί τινα γραφήν indict one for a public offence, φεύγειν γραφήν be put on one's trial for a public offence. Also ἀγωνίζεσθαι στάδιον (= ἀγῶνα σταδίου) be a contestant in the race-course, νι_κᾶν στάδιον be victorious in the race-course, νι_κᾶν δίκην win a case, νι_κᾶν γνώμην carry a resolution (pass. γνώμην ἡττᾶσθαι), ὀφλεῖν δίκην lose a case.


The (rarer) dative (φόβῳ ταρβεῖν, βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν, φεύγειν φυγῇ) expresses the cause ( cross1517), manner ( cross1513), or means ( cross1507).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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