]. LOCATIVE DATIVE
The dative as the representative of the locative is used to express place and time.
a. On the instrumental dative of space and time, see cross1528.
Dative of Place.—In poetry the dative without a preposition is used to denote place.
a. Where a person or thing is:
στὰ_ς μέσῳ ἕρκεϊ taking his stand in the middle of the court
S. O. T. 1266, ναίειν ὄρεσιν to dwell among the mountains O. T. 1451. Often of the parts of the body (Hom. θυ_μῷ, καρδίῃ, etc.). With persons (generally in the plural): ἀριπρεπὴς Τρώεσσιν conspicuous among the Trojans Z 477. τοῖσι δ' ἀνέστη A 68 may be rose up among them or a dative proper (for them).
γῇ ἔκειτο she lay on the ground
b. Place whither (limit of motion): πεδίῳ πέσε fell on the ground E 82,
κολεῷ ἄορ θέο put thy sword into its sheath
After verbs of motion the dative, as distinguished from the locative, denotes direction towards and is used of persons ( cross1485), and is a form of the dative of interest.
Many verbs capable of taking the locative dative in poetry, require, in prose, the aid of a preposition in composition. The limit of motion is usually ( cross1589) expressed by the accusative with a preposition (e.g. εἰς, πρός).
In prose the dative of place (chiefly place where) is used only of proper names: Πυ_θοῖ at Pytho, Ἰσθμοῖ at the Isthmus, Σαλαμῖνι at Salamis, Ὀλυμπία_σι at Olympia, Ἀθήνησι at Athens (inscr.); especially with the names of Attic demes, as Φαληροῖ, Θορικοῖ, Μαραθῶνι. But ἐν Μαραθῶνι and ἐν Πλαταιαῖς occur. Some deme-names require ἐν, as ἐν Κοίλῃ.
Many adverbs are genuine locatives, as οἴκοι, πάλαι, πανδημεί, Φαληροῖ; Ἀθήνησι, Πλαταιᾶσι; others are datives in form, as κύκλῳ, Πλαταιαῖς.
With names of countries and places, ἐν is more common than the
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locative dative, and, with the above exceptions, the place where is expressed in Attic prose with ἐν.
Verbs of ruling often take the dative, especially in Homer: Μυρμιδόνεσσιν ἄνασσε Α 180, Γιγάντεσσιν βασίλευεν η 59, ἦρχε δ' ἄρα σφιν Ἀγαμέμνων Ξ 134. Rarely in prose: ἡγεῖσθαί τινι to serve as guide (leader) to some one, ἐπιστατεῖν τινι to be set over one; ἄρχειν τινί means only = to be archon (Πυ_θοδώρου ἄρχοντος Ἀθηναίοις T. 2.2). Cp. cross1371.
a. Only when stress is not laid on the idea of supremacy is the dative, instead of the genitive ( cross1370), used with verbs of ruling.
It is not clear whether the dative with verbs of ruling is a dative proper (for), a locative (among; cp. ἐν Φαίηξιν ἄνασσε η cross62), or an instrumental (by). ἄρχειν, ἡγεῖσθαι may take the dative proper, ἀνάσσειν, βασιλεύειν, κρατεῖν may take the locative dative.
Dative of Time.—The dative without a preposition is commonly used to denote a definite point of time (chiefly day, night, month, year, season) at which an action occurred. The dative contrasts one point of time with another, and is usually accompanied by an attributive.
The dative denotes the time at which an action takes place and the date of an event.
ταύτην μὲν τὴν ἡμέρα_ν αὐτοῦ ἔμειναν, τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ κτλ. throughout that day they waited there, but on the day following, etc. X. H. 1.1.14. So τῇ προτεραίᾳ the day before, τῇ δευτέρᾳ the second day, Ἐλαφηβολιῶνος μηνὸς ἕκτῃ (ἡμέρᾳ)
φθίνοντος on the sixth of waning Elaphebolion
ἕνῃ καὶ ϝέᾳ on the last of the month
τρίτῳ μηνί in the third month
T. 1.30, ἐξηκοστῷ ἔτει in the sixtieth year 1. 12; also with ὥρᾳ (
περιιόντι τῷ θέρει when summer was coming to an end
χειμῶνος ὥρᾳ in the winter season
The names of the regular recurring festivals which serve to date an occurrence stand in the dative:
D. 21.156, τοῖς Διονυ_σίοις at the Dionysia 21. 1, ταῖς πομπαῖς at the processions 21. 171, τοῖς τραγῳδοῖς at the representations of the tragedies Aes. 3.176. ἐν is rarely added.
Παναθηναίοις at the Panathenaea
ἐν is added:
a. To words denoting time when there is no attributive: -- 353 --
X. O. 17.3; cp. cross1444. b. When the attributive is a pronoun (sometimes): (ἐν) ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ. c. To statements of the time within the limits of which an event may take place (where ἐντός with the genitive is common); to statements of how much time anything takes; with numbers, ὀλίγος, πολύς, etc. Thus, ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις for (during) three days X. A. 4.8.8,
ἐν τῷ χειμῶνι in winter
οὐ ῥᾴδιον τὰ ἐν ἅπαντι τῷ χρόνῳ πρα_χθέντα ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ δηλωθῆναι it is not easy to set forth in a single day the acts of all time
P. A. 19a. ἐν is rarely omitted in prose, and chiefly when there is an attributive: μιᾷ νυκτὶ T. 6.27. d. Always with adjectives or adverbs used substantively: ἐν τῷ παρόντι, ἐν τῷ τότε. e. To words denoting the date of an event, not a point of time:
ἐξελέσθαι τὴν διαβολὴν ἐν οὕτως ὀλίγῳ χρόνῳ to clear myself of calumny in so brief a time
Aes. 2.123. Thuc. employs ἐν, as ἐν τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ ἐκκλησίᾳ in
ἐν τῇ προτέρᾳ πρεσβείᾳ in the first embassy
the assembly held the day after 1. 44, but usu. the simple dative, as μάχῃ in the battle 3. 54, ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἐσβολῇ in that incursion 2. 20, τῇ προτέρᾳ ἐκκλησίᾳ in the first assembly 1. 44.
The dative and genitive of time are sometimes employed with only a slight difference ( cross1447 a).