Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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1507

Instrument or Means.—ἔβαλλέ με λίθοις he hit me with stones L. 3.8, ἵ_ησι τῇ ἀξί_νῃ he hurls his ax at him (hurls with his ax) X. A. 1.5.12, ταῖς μαχαίραις

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κόπτοντες hacking them with their swords 4. 6. 26, οὐδὲν ἤνυε τούτοις he accomplished nothing by this D. 21.104, ἐζημίωσαν χρήμασιν they punished him by a fine T. 2.65, ὕ_οντος πολλῷ (ὕδατι) during a heavy rain X. H. 1.1.16 ( cross934). So with δέχεσθαι: τῶν πόλεων οὐ δεχομένων αὐτοὺς ἀγορᾷ οὐδὲ ἄστει, ὕδατι δὲ καὶ ὅρμῳ as the cities did not admit them to a market nor even into the town, but (only) to water and anchorage T. 6.44. Often with passives: ᾠκοδομημένον πλίνθοις built of bricks X. A. 2.4.12.

a. The instrumental dative is often akin to the comitative dative: ἀλώμενος νηί τε καὶ ἑτάροισι wandering with his ship and companions λ 161, νηυσὶν οἰχήσονται they shall go with their ships Ω 731, θυ_μῷ καὶ ῥώμῃ τὸ πλέον ἐναυμάχουν ἢ ἐπιστήμῃ they fought with passionate violence and brute force rather than by a system of tactics T. 1.49.

b. Persons may be regarded as instruments: φυλαττόμενοι φύλαξι defending themselves by pickets X. A. 6.4.27. Often in poetry (S. Ant. 164).

c. Verbs of raining or snowing take the dative or accusative ( cross1570 a).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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