Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The person for whom something is or is done, or in reference to whose case an action is viewed, is put in the dative.

a. Many of the verbs in 1461 ff. take a dative of interest. 1476 ff. are special cases.


After verbs of motion the dative (usually personal) is used, especially in poetry: χεῖρας ἐμοὶ ὀρέγοντας reaching out their hands to me μ 257, ψυ_χὰ_ς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν hurled their souls on to Hades (a person) A 3; rarely, in prose, after verbs not compounded with a preposition: σχόντες (scil. τὰ_ς ναῦς) Πηγίῳ putting in at Rhegium T. 7.1. Cp. cross1485.


Dative of the Possessor.—The person for whom a thing exists is put in the dative with εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, ὑπάρχειν, φῦναι (poet.), etc., when he is regarded as interested in its possession.

ἄλλοις μὲν χρήματά ἐστι, ἡμῖν δὲ ξύμμαχοι ἀγαθοί others have riches, we have good allies T. 1.86, τῷ δικαίῳ παρὰ θεῶν δῶρα γίγνεται gifts are bestowed upon the just man by the gods P. R. 613e, ὑπάρχει ἡμῖν οὐδὲν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων we have no supply of provisions X. A. 2.2.11, πᾶσι θνα_τοῖς ἔφυ_ μόρος death is the natural lot of all men S. El. 860.


So with verbs of thinking and perceiving: τὸν ἀγαθὸν ἄρχοντα βλέποντα νόμον ἀνθρώποις ἐνόμισεν Cyrus considered that a good ruler was a living law to man X. C. 8.1.22, θαρροῦσι μάλιστα πολέμιοι, ὅταν τοῖς ἐναντίοις πρά_γματα πυνθάνωνται the enemy are most courageous when they learn that the forces opposed to them are in trouble X. Hipp. 5.8.


In the phrase ὄνομά (ἐστί) τινι the name is put in the same case as ὄνομα. Thus, ἔδοξα ἀκοῦσαι ὄνομα αὐτῷ εἶναι Ἀγάθωνα I thought I heard his name was Agathon P. Pr. 315e. ὄνομά μοί ἐστι and ὄνομα (ἐπωνυμία_ν) ἔχω are treated as the passives of ὀνομάζω. Cp. cross1322 a.


Here belong the phrases (1) τί (ἐστιν) ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί; what have I to do with thee?; cp. τί τῷ νόμῳ καὶ τῇ βασάνῳ; what have the law and torture in common? D. 29.36. (2) τί ταῦτ' ἐμοί; what have I to do with this? D. 54.17. (3) τί ἐμοὶ πλέον; what gain have I? X. C. 5.5.34.

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The dative of the possessor denotes that something is at the disposal of a person or has fallen to his share temporarily. The genitive of possession lays stress on the person who owns something. The dative answers the question what is it that he has?, the genitive answers the question who is it that has something? The uses of the two cases are often parallel, but not interchangeable. Thus, in Κῦρος, οὗ σὺ ἔσει τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε Cyrus, to whom you will henceforth belong X. C. 5.1.6, would be inappropriate. With a noun in the genitive the dative of the possessor is used (τῶν ἑκατέροις ξυμμάχων T. 2.1); with a noun in the dative, the genitive of the possessor (τοῖς ἑαυτῶν ξυμμάχοις 1. cross18).


Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage (dativus commodi et incommodi).—The person or thing for whose advantage or disadvantage, anything is or is done, is put in the dative. The dative often has to be translated as if the possessive genitive were used; but the meaning is different.

ἐπειδὴ αὐτοῖς οἱ βάρβαροι ἐκ τῆς χώρα_ς ἀπῆλθον after the barbarians had departed (for them, to their advantage) from their country T. 1.89, ἄλλο στράτευμα αὐτῷ συνελέγετο another army was being raised for him X. A. 1.1.9, ἄλλῳ ὁ τοιοῦτος πλουτεῖ, καὶ οὐχ ἑαυτῷ such a man is rich for another, and not for himself P. Menex. 246e, στεφανοῦσθαι τῷ θεῷ to be crowned in honour of the god X. H. 4.3.21, Φιλιστίδης ἔπρα_ττε Φιλίππῳ Philistides was working in the interest of Philip D. 9.59, τὰ χρήματ' αἴτι' ἀνθρωποῖς κακῶν money is a cause of misery to mankind E. Fr. 632, οἱ Θρᾷκες οἱ τῷ Δημοσθένει ὑστερήσαντες the Thracians who came too late (for, i.e.) to help Demosthenes T. 7.29, ἥδε ἡ ἡμέρα_ τοῖς Ἕλλησι μεγάλων κακῶν ἄρξει this day will be to the Greeks the beginning of great sorrows 2. 12, ἄ_ν τίς σοι τῶν οἰκετῶν ἀποδρᾷ if any of your slaves runs away X. M. 2.10.1.

a. For the middle denoting to do something for oneself, see cross1719.

b. In the last example in 1481, as elsewhere, the dative of a personal pronoun is used where a possessive pronoun would explicitly denote the owner.


A dative, dependent on the sentence, may appear to depend on a substantive: σοὶ δὲ δώσω ἄνδρα τῇ θυγατρί to you I will give a husband for your daughter X. C. 8.4.24. Common in Hdt.


With verbs of depriving, warding off, and the like, the dative of the person may be used: τὸ συστρατεύειν ἀφελεῖν σφίσιν ἐδεήθησαν they asked him to relieve them (lit. take away for them) from serving in the war X. C. 7.1.44, Δαναοῖσιν λοιγὸν ἄμυ_νον ward off ruin from (for) the Danai A 456. So ἀλέξειν τινί τι (poet.). Cp. cross1392, cross1628.


With verbs of receiving and buying, the person who gives or sells may stand in the dative. In δέχεσθαί τί τινι (chiefly poetic) the dative denotes the interest of the recipient in the donor: Θέμιστι δέκτο δέπας she took the cup from (for, i.e. to please) Themis O 87. So with πόσου πρίωμαί σοι τὰ χοιρίδια; at what price am I to buy the pigs of you? Ar. Ach. 812.


With verbs of motion the dative of the person to whom is properly a dative of advantage or disadvantage: ἦλθε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ἡ ἀγγελία_ the message came to (for) the Athenians T. 1.61. Cp. cross1475.


Dative of Feeling (Ethical Dative).—The personal pro

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nouns of the first and second person are often used to denote the interest of the speaker, or to secure the interest of the person spoken to, in an action or statement.

μέμνησθέ μοι μὴ θορυβεῖν pray remember not to make a disturbance P. A. 27b, ἀμουσότεροι γενήσονται ὑ_μῖν οἱ νέοι your young men will grow less cultivated P. R. 546d, τοιοῦτο ὑ_μῖν ἐστι ἡ τυραννίς such a thing, you know, is despotism Hdt. 5.92 η, Ἀρταφέρνης ὑ_μῖν Ὑστάσπεός ἐστι παῖς Artaphernes, you know, is Hystaspes' son 5. 30. The dative of feeling may denote surprise: ὦ μῆτερ, ὡς καλός μοι ὁ πάππος oh mother, how handsome grandpa is X. C. 1.3.2. With the dative of feeling cp. “knock me here” Shakesp. T. of Sh. 1. 2. 8, “study me how to please the eye” L. L. L. i. 1. 80. τοὶ surely, often used to introduce general statements or maxims, is a petrified dative of feeling (= σοί).

a. This dative in the third person is very rare (αὐτῇ in P. R. 343a).

b. This construction reproduces the familiar style of conversation and may often be translated by I beg you, please, you see, let me tell you, etc. Sometimes the idea cannot be given in translation. This dative is a form of 1481.


ἐμοὶ βουλομένῳ ἐστί, etc.—Instead of a sentence with a finite verb, a participle usually denoting inclination or aversion is added to the dative of the person interested, which depends on a form of εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, etc.

τῷ πλήθει τῶν Πλαταιῶν οὐ βουλομένῳ ἦν τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἀφίστασθαι the Plataean democracy did not wish to revolt from the Athenians (= τὸ πλῆθος οὐκ ἐβούλετο ἀφίστασθαι) T. 2.3 (lit. it was not for them when wishing), ἂ_ν βουλομένοις ἀκούειν ᾖ τουτοισί_, μνησθήσομαι if these men (the jury) desire to hear it, I shall take the matter up later (= ἂ_ν οὗτοι ἀκούειν βούλωνται) D. 18.11, ἐπανέλθωμεν, εἴ σοι ἡδομένῳ ἐστίν let us go back if it is your pleasure to do so P. Ph. 78b, εἰ μὴ ἀσμένοις ὑ_μῖν ἀφῖγμαι if I have come against your will T. 4.85, Νι_κίᾳ προσδεχομένῳ ἦν τὰ παρὰ τῶν Ἐγεσταίων Nicias was prepared for the news from the Egestaeans 6. 46, ἦν δὲ οὐ τῷ Ἀ_γησιλά_ῳ ἀχθομένῳ this was not displeasing to Agesilaus X. H. 5.3.13. Cp. quibus bellum volentibus erat.


Dative of the Agent.—With passive verbs (usually in the perfect and pluperfect) and regularly with verbal adjectives in -τός and -τέος, the person in whose interest an action is done, is put in the dative. The notion of agency does not belong to the dative, but it is a natural inference that the person interested is the agent.

ἐμοὶ καὶ τούτοις πέπρα_κται has been done by (for) me and these men D. 19.205, ἐπειδὴ αὐτοῖς παρεσκεύαστο when they had got their preparations ready T. 1.46, τοσαῦτά μοι εἰρήσθω let so much have been said by me L. 24.4, ἐψηφίσθαι τῇ βουλῇ let it have been decreed by the senate C.I.A. /lref>

a. With verbal adjectives in -τός and -τέος ( cross2149): τοῖς οἴκοι ζηλωτός envied by those at home X. A. 1.7.4, ἡμῖν γ' ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς ἀγωνιστέον we at least must struggle to defend our freedom D. 9.70. For the accus. with -τέον, see cross2152 a.


The usual restriction of the dative to tenses of completed action seems to be due to the fact that the agent is represented as placed in the position of

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viewing an already completed action in the light of its relation to himself (interest, advantage, possession).


The dative of the agent is rarely employed with other tenses than perfect and pluperfect: λέγεται ἡμῖν is said by us P. L. 715b, τοῖς Κερκυ_ραίοις οὐχ ἑωρῶντο the ships were not seen by (were invisible to) the Corcyraeans T. 1.51; present, T. 4.64, 109; aorist T. 2.7.


The person by whom (not for whom) an action is explicitly said to be done, is put in the genitive with ὑπό ( cross1698. 1. b).


The dative of the personal agent is used (1) when the subject is impersonal, the verb being transitive or intransitive, (2) when the subject is persal and the person is treated as a thing in order to express scorn (twice only in the orators: D. 19.247, 57. cross10).


ὑπό with the genitive of the personal agent is used (1) when the subject is a person, a city, a country, or is otherwise quasi-personal, (2) when the verb is intransitive even if the subject is a thing, as τῶν τειχῶν ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων πεπτωκότων the walls having been destroyed by the barbarians Aes. 2.172, (3) in a few cases with an impersonal subject, usually for the sake of emphasis, as ὡς ἑταίρα_ ἦν . . . ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων οἰκείων καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν γειτόνων μεμαρτύρηται that she was an hetaera has been testified by the rest of his relatives and by his neighbours Is. 3.13.

a. νι_κᾶσθαι, ἡττᾶσθαι to be conquered may be followed by the dative of a person, by ὑπό τινος, or by the genitive ( cross1402).


When the agent is a thing, not a person, the dative is commonly used whether the subject is personal or impersonal. If the subject is personal, ὑπό may be used; in which case the inanimate agent is personified (see cross1698. 1. N. 1). ὑπό is rarely used when the subject is impersonal. ὑπό is never used with the impersonal perfect passive of an intransitive verb.


The dative may be used of a person to whose case the statement of the predicate is limited.

φευγειν αὐτοῖς ἀσφαλέστερόν ἐστιν ἢ ἡμῖν it is safer for them to flee than for us X. A. 3.2.19, τριήρει ἐστὶν εἰς Ἡρά_κλειαν ἡμέρα_ς μακρᾶς πλοῦς for a trireme it is a long day's sail to Heraclea 6. 4. 2. Such cases as δρόμος ἐγένετο τοῖς στρατιώταις the soldiers began to run X. A. 1.2.17 belong here rather than under 1476 or 1488.

a. ὡς restrictive is often added: μακρὰ_ ὡς γέροντι ὁδός a long road (at least) for an old man S. O. C. 20, σωφροσύνης δὲ ὡς πλήθει οὐ τὰ τοιάδε μέγιστα; for the mass of men are not the chief points of temperance such as these? P. R. 389d.


Dative of Reference.—The dative of a noun or pronoun often denotes the person in whose opinion a statement holds good.

γάμους τοὺς πρώτους ἐγάμει Πέρσῃσι ὁ Δα_ρεῖος Darius contracted marriages most distinguished in the eyes of the Persians Hdt. 3.88, πᾶσι νι_κᾶν τοῖς κριταῖς to be victorious in the judgment of all the judges Ar. Av. 445, πολλοῖσιν οἰκτρός pitiful in the eyes of many S. Tr. 1071. παρά is often used, as in παρὰ Δα_ρείῳ κριτῇ in the opinion of Darius Hdt. 3.160.

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The dative participle, without a noun or pronoun, is frequently used in the singular or plural to denote indefinitely the person judging or observing. This construction is most common with participles of verbs of coming or going and with participles of verbs of considering.

ἡ Θρᾴκη ἐστὶν ἐπὶ δεξιὰ εἰς τὸν Πόντον εἰσπλέοντι Thrace is on the right as you sail into the Pontus X. A. 6.4.1, ἔλεγον ὅτι ἡ ὁδὸς διαβάντι τὸν ποταμὸν ἐπὶ Λυ_δία_ν φέροι they said that, when you had crossedthe river, the road led to Lydia 3. 5. 15, οὐκ οὖν ἄτοπον διαλογιζομένοις τὰ_ς δωρεὰ_ς νυ_νὶ πλείους εἶναι; is it not strange, when we reflect, that gifts are more frequent now? Aes. 3.179, τὸ μὲν ἔξωθεν ἁπτομένῳ σῶμα οὐκ ἄγα_ν θερμὸν ἦν if you touched the surface the body was not very hot T. 2.49, πρὸς ὠφέλειαν σκοπουμένῳ ὁ ἐπαινέτης τοῦ δικαίου ἀληθεύει if you look at the matter from the point of view of advantage, the panegyrist of justice speaks the truth P. R. 589c. So (ὡς) συνελόντι εἰπεῖν (X. A. 3.1.38) to speak briefly (lit. for one having brought the matter into small compass), συνελόντι D. 4.7.

a. The participle of verbs of coming or going is commonly used in statements of geographical situation.

b. The present participle is more common than the aorist in the case of all verbs belonging under 1497.


Dative of the Participle expressing Time.—In expressions of time a participle is often used with the dative of the person interested in the action of the subject, and especially to express the time that has passed since an action has occurred (cp. “and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren” St. Luke i. cross36).

ἀποροῦντι δ' αὐτῷ ἔρχεται Προμηθεύς Prometheus comes to him in his perplexity P. Pr. 321c, Ξενοφῶντι πορευομένῳ οἱ ἱππεῖς ἐντυγχάνουσι πρεσβύ_ταις while Xenophon was on the march, his horsemen fell in with some old men X. A. 6.3.10. The idiom is often transferred from persons to things: ἡμέραι μάλιστα ἦσαν τῇ Μυτιλήνῃ ἑα_λωκυίᾳ ἑπτά, ὅτ' ἐς τὸ Ἔμβατον κατέπλευσαν about seven days had passed since the capture of Mytilene, when they sailed into Embatum T. 3.29. This construction is frequent in Hom. and Hdt. The participle is rarely omitted (T. 1.13.).

a. A temporal clause may take the place of the participle: τῇ στρατιᾷ, ἀφ' οὗ ἐξέπλευσεν εἰς Σικελία_ν, ἤδη ἐστὶ δύο καὶ πεντήκοντα ἔτη it is already fifty-two years since the expedition sailed to Sicily Is. 6.14.


Adjectives, adverbs, and substantives, of kindred meaning with the foregoing verbs, take the dative to define their meaning.

βασιλεῖ φίλοι friendly to the king X. A. 2.1.20, εὔνους τῷ δήμῳ well disposed to the people And. 4.16, τοῖς ϝόμοις ἔνοχος subject to the laws D. 21.35, ἐχθρὸν ἐλευθερίᾳ καὶ νόμοις ἐναντίον hostile to liberty and opposed to law 6. 25, ξυμμαχίᾳ πίσυνοι relying on the alliance T. 6.2, φόρῳ ὑπήκοοι subject to tribute 7. 57, ἢν ποιῆτε ὅμοια τοῖς λόγοις if you act in accordance with your words 2. 72, στρατὸς ἴσος καὶ παραπλήσιος τῷ προτέρῳ an army equal or nearly so to the former 7. 42,

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ἀδελφὰ τὰ βουλεύματα τοῖς ἔργοις plans like the deeds L. 2.64, ἀλλήλοις ἀνομοίως in a way unlike to each other P. Tim. 36d. For substantives see cross1502.

a. Some adjectives, as φίλος, ἐχθρός, may be treated as substantives and take the genitive. Some adjectives often differ slightly in meaning when they take the genitive.


With ὁ αὐτός the same.—τὴν αὐτὴν γνώμην ἐμοὶ ἔχειν to be of the same mind as I am L. 3.21, τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἐμοὶ πατρός of the same father as I am D. 40.34, ταὐτὰ φρονῶν ἐμοί agreeing with me 18. 304.


With adjectives and adverbs of similarity and dissimilarity the comparison is often condensed (brachylogy) : ὁμοία_ν ταῖς δούλαις εἶχε τὴν ἐσθῆτα she had a dress on like (that of) her servants X. C. 5.1.4 (the possessor for the thing possessed, = τῇ ἐσθῆτι τῶν δουλῶν), Ὀρφεῖ γλῶσσα ἡ ἐναντία_ a tongue unlike (that of) Orpheus A. Ag. 1629.

a. After adjectives and adverbs of likeness we also find καί, ὅσπερ (ὥσπερ). Thus, παθεῖν ταὐτὸν ὅπερ πολλάκις πρότερον πεπόνθατε to suffer the same as you have often suffered before D. 1.8, οὐχ ὁμοίως πεποιήκα_σι καὶ Ὅμηρος they have not composed their poetry as Homer did P. Ion 531 d.


The dative after substantives is chiefly used when the substantive expresses the act denoted by the kindred verb requiring the dative: ἐπιβουλὴ ἐμοί a plot against me X. A. 5.6.29, διάδοχος Κλεάνδρῳ a successor to Cleander 7. 2. 5, ἡ ἐμὴ τῷ θεῷ ὑπηρεσία_ my service to the god P. A. 30a. But also in other cases: φιλία_ τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις friendship for the Athenians T. 5.5, ὕμνοι θεοῖς hymns to the gods P. R. 607a, ἐφόδια τοῖς στρατευομένοις supplies for the troops D. 3.20, ἧλοι ταῖς θύραις nails for the doors ( cross1473).

a. Both a genitive and a dative may depend on the same substantive: ἡ τοῦ θεοῦ δόσις ὑ_μῖν the god's gift to you P. A. 30d.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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