]. GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES
The genitive is used with many adjectives corresponding in derivation or meaning to verbs taking the genitive.
The adjective often borrows the construction with the genitive from that of the corresponding verb; but when the verb takes another case (especially the accusative), or when there is no verb corresponding to the adjective, the adjective may govern the genitive to express possession, connection more or less close, or by analogy. Many of the genitives in question may be classed as objective as well as partitive or ablatival. Rigid distinction between the undermentioned classes must not be insisted on.
Possession and Belonging ( cross1297).—
P. S. 205a (cp. κοινωνεῖν cross1343),
ὁ ἔρως κοινὸς πάντων ἀνθρώπων love common to all men
P. Ph. 85b,
ἱερὸς τοῦ αὐτοῦ θεοῦ sacred to the same god
D. 2.28. So with οἰκεῖος and ἐπιχώριος peculiar to. κοινός (usually), οἰκεῖος inclined to, appropriate to, and ἴδιος also take the dative ( cross1499).
οἱ κίνδυ_νοι τῶν ἐφεστηκότων ἴδιοι the dangers belong to the commanders
Sharing ( cross1343).—
P. L. 689d,
σοφία_ς μέτοχος partaking in wisdom
X. C. 2.1.31,
ἰσόμοιροι πάντων having an equal share in everything
P. S. 181c. So ἄκληρος without lot in, ἀμέτοχος not sharing in.
ὕβρεως ἄμοιρος having no part in wantonness
Touching, Desiring, Attaining, Tasting ( cross1345, cross1350, cross1355).—
S. O. T. 969,
ἄψαυστος ἔγχους not touching a spear
T. 3.67, παιδεία_ς ἐπήβολοι having attained to (possessed of) culture P. L. 724b,
χάρις ὧν πρόθυ_μοι γεγενήμεθα gratitude for the objects of our zeal
P. R. 576a. So δύσερως passionately desirous of.
ἐλευθερία_ς ἄγευστος not tasting freedom
X. O. 11.12,
ἀκόλουθα ἀλλήλων dependent on one another
X. Hi. 1.22,
τὰ τούτων ἀδελφά what is akin to this
P. R. 504b,
τῶν προειρημένων ἑπόμεναι ἀποδείξεις expositions agreeing with what had preceded
S. Ph. 867. All these adjectives take also the dative; as does συγγενής akin, which has become a substantive.
φέγγος ὕπνου διάδοχον light succeeding sleep
Capacity and Fitness.—Adjectives in -ικός from active verbs, and some others:
X. M. 3.1.6. So διδασκαλικός able to instruct, πρα_κτικός able to effect. Here may belong
παρασκευαστικὸν τῶν εἰς τὸν πόλεμον τὸν στρατηγὸν εἶναι χρὴ καὶ ποριστικὸν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων τοῖς στρατιώταις the general must be able to provide what is needed in war and to supply provisions for his men
X. C. 4.6.9.
γάμου ὡραία_ ripe for marriage
Experience ( cross1345).— -- 333 --
X. C. 5.3.35,
ὁδῶν ἔμπειρος acquainted with the roads
T. 1.142, ἰδιώτης τούτου
τῆς θαλάσσης ἐπιστήμων acquainted with the sea
X. O. 3.9. So with τρίβων skilled in, τυφλός blind, ἄπειρος unacquainted, ἀγύμναστος unpractised, ἀπαίδευτος uneducated, ἀήθης unaccustomed, ὀψιμαθής late in learning, φιλομαθής fond of learning.
τοῦ ἔργου unskilled in this business
Remembering, Caring For ( cross1356).—
A. Eum. 382,
κακῶν μνήμονες mindful of crime
X. M. 2.6.35, ἀμνήμων τ ῶν κινδύ_νων unmindful of dangers Ant. 2. α. 7; and, by analogy,
ἐπιμελὴς τῶν φίλων attentive to friends
X. C. 6.1.37. So ἀμελής careless of, ἐπιλήσμων forgetful of.
συγγνώμων τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτων forgiving of human errors
Perception ( cross1361).—Compounds in -ήκοος from ἀκούω:
P. R. 499a,
λόγων καλῶν ἐπήκοοι hearers of noble words
ὑπήκοοι Θεσσαλῶν subjects of the Thessalians
P. R. 463d,
ὑπήκοος τῶν γονέων obedient to parents
Aes. 1.141. So συνήκοος hearing together, κατήκοος obeying. ἐπήκοος, κατήκοος, and ὑπήκοος also take the dative.
ἀνήκοοι παιδεία_ς ignorant of culture
Fulness ( cross1369).—
χαρᾶς ἡ πόλις ἦν μεστή the city was full of rejoicing
X. A. 1.2.7,
παράδεισος ἀγρίων θηρίων πλήρης a park full of wild beasts
P. Pol. 261e,
πλουσιώτερος φρονήσεως richer in good sense
P. S. 197d,
φιλόδωρος εὐμεϝεία_ς generous of good-will
X. C. 8.2.20. So with ἔμπλεως, σύμπλεως. πλήρης may take the dative.
ἄπληστος χρημάτων greedy of money
Ruling ( cross1370).—
ταύτης κύ_ριος τῆς χώρα_ς master of this country
T. 3.84. So with ἐγκρατής master of, αὐτοκράτωρ complete master of, ἀκράτωρ intemperate in.
ἀκρατὴς ὀργῆς unrestrained in passion
Value ( cross1372).—
X. A. 7.3.27,
τάπις ἀξία_ δέκα μνῶν a rug worth ten minae
I. 2.32. So with ἀντάξιος worth, ἰσόρροπος in equal poise with (T. 2.42), ἀξιόχρεως sufficient, ἀνάξιος unworthy. ἄξιόν τινι with the infinitive denotes it is meet for a person to do something or the like.
δόξα χρημάτων οὐκ ὠνητή reputation is not to be bought for money
Accountability ( cross1375).—
P. G. 447a,
αἴτιος τούτων accountable for this
ἔνοχος λιποταξίου liable to a charge of desertion
P. L. 907e,
ἀσεβεία_ς ὑπόδικος subject to a trial for impiety
ὑποτελὴς φόρου subject to tribute
D. 8.69, ἀθῷοι τῶν ἀδικημάτων unpunished for offences Lyc. 79. ἔνοχος usually takes the dative, and so ὑπεύθυ_νος meaning dependent on or exposed to. The above compounds of ὑπό take the genitive by virtue of the substantive contained in them.
τούτων ὑπεύθυ_νος ὑ_μῖν responsible to you for this
Place.—ἐναντίος opposite and a few other adjectives denoting nearness or approach ( cross1353) may take the genitive, chiefly in poetry: ἐναντίοι ἔσταν Ἀχαιῶν they stood opposite the Achaeans P 343. Cp.
Hdt. 7.36. ἐναντίος usually takes the dative.
τοῦ Πόντου ἐπικάρσιαι at an angle with the Pontus
Separation ( cross1392).—
X. M. 4.4.24,
φίλων ἀγαθῶν ἔρημοι deprived of good friends
P. L. 899a,
ψυ_χὴ ψι_λὴ σώματος the soul separated from the body
P. R. 548b (or perhaps under cross1356),
φειδωλοὶ χρημάτων sparing of money
X. O. 16.13,
ὕ_λης καθαρόν clear of undergrowth
E. Supp. 82. So with ἐλεύθερος free from, ἁγνός pure from, innocent of, ὀρφανός bereft of, γυμνός stripped of, μόνος alone.
ἄπαυστος γόων never ceasing lamentations
Compounds of alpha privative.—In addition to the adjectives with alpha privative which take the genitive by reason of the notion expressed in the
-- 334 --
verb, or by analogy, there are many others, some of which take the genitive because of the idea of separation, especially when the genitive is of kindred meaning and an attributive adjective is added for the purpose of more exact definition. Thus, ἄτι_μος deprived of, ἀπαθής not suffering, ἀτελής free from ( cross1392): as
P. L. 774b,
τι_μῆς ἄτι_μος deprived of honour
ἄπαις ἀρρένων παίδων without male children
X. M. 2.1.31,
τοῦ ἡδίστου θεά_ματος ἀθέα_τος not seeing the most pleasant sight
S. O. C. 865. This is more frequent in poetry than prose.
ἄφωνος τῆσδε τῆς ἀρᾶς without uttering this curse
a. So when the adjectives are passive:
S. Ant. 847, cp.
φίλων ἄκλαυτος unwept by friends
S. O. C. 1722. The genitive with adjectives in alpha privative is sometimes called the genitive of relation.
κακῶν δυσάλωτος οὐδείς no one is hard for evil fortune to capture
Want ( cross1396).—
X. A. 1.8.20,
ἅρματα κενὰ ἡνιόχων chariots deprived of their drivers
P. R. 381c. So with πένης poor, ἐλλιπής and ἐπιδεής lacking.
ἐνδεὴς ἀρετῆς lacking virtue
Distinction ( cross1401).—
P. Par. 160d,
διάφορος τῶν ἄλλων different from the rest
P. G. 500d,
ἕτερον τὸ ἡδὺ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ pleasure is different from what is good
X. M. 4.4.25 (ἄλλος is almost a comparative). So with ἀλλοῖος and ἀλλότριος alien from (also with dat. unfavourable to, disinclined to). διάφορος with dative means at variance with.
ἄλλα τῶν δικαίων at variance with justice
Comparison ( cross1402).—Adjectives of the comparative degree or implying comparison take the genitive. The genitive denotes the standard or point of departure from which the comparison is made, and often expresses a condensed comparison when actions are compared. Thus,
P. Phae. 239a,
ἤττων ἀμαθὴς σοφοῦ, δειλὸς ἀνδρείου an ignorant man is inferior to a wise man, a coward to a brave man
X. M. 3.11.1,
κρεῖττόν ἐστι λόγου τὸ κάλλος τῆς γυναικός the beauty of the woman is too great for description
X. A. 1.2.25,
Ἐπύαξα προτέρα_ Κύ_ρου πέντε ἡμέραις ἀφί_κετο Epyaxa arrived five days before Cyrus
I. 2.7. So with δεύτερος, ὑστεραῖος, περιττός. Comparatives with ἤ, 1069.
καταδεεστέρα_ν τὴν δόξαν τῆς ἐλπίδος ἔλαβεν the reputation he acquired fell short of his expectation
So with multiplicatives in -πλοῦς and -πλάσιος:
X. C. 8.3.38. So with πολλοστός.
διπλάσια ἀπέδωκεν ὧν ἔλαβεν it returned double what it received
The genitive with the comparative often takes the place of ἤ with another construction: ἀ_θλιώτερόν ἐστι μὴ ὑγιοῦς σώματος ( = ἢ μὴ ὑγιεῖ σώματι)
P. G. 479b, πλείοσι ναυσὶ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ( = ἢ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι)
μὴ ὑγιεῖ ψυ_χῇ συνοικεῖν it is more wretched to dwell with a diseased soul than a diseased body
παρῆσαν they came with more ships than the Athenians
The superlative with the genitive is both partitive and ablatival; the latter, when a thing is compared with many things taken singly. Thus, σοφώτατος ἀνθρώπων P. A. 22c means wisest among men (part.) and wiser than any other single man. The partitive idea is the stronger. The comparative and the superlative idea are both expressed in ἀνὴρ ἐπιεικὴς υἱὸν ἀπολέσα_ς οἴσει ῥᾷστα τῶν ἄλλων a reasonable man will bear the loss of a son more easily than other men (and most easily of all men) P. R. 603e, -- 335 --
στρατεία_ μεγίστη τῶν πρὸ αὐτῆς an expedition greater than any preceding it
D. 8.72. Cp. μόνος τῶν ἄλλων = alone of all D. 21.223.
τῶν ἄλλων ὕστατοι the last among nations
Cause ( cross1405).—
P. Ph. 58e,
εὐδαίμων τοῦ τρόπου happy because of his disposition
S. O. T. 1347,
δείλαιος τῆς συμφορᾶς wretched because of thy lot
X. A. 2.3.15,
βάλανοι θαυμάσιαι τοῦ μεγέθους dates wonderful for their size
P. Phae. 239b. So with τάλα_ς and τλήμων wretched.
περίφοβος τοῦ καταφρονηθῆναι fearful of becoming an object of contempt
Free Use.—a. Compound adjectives formed of a preposition and substantive may take a genitive dependent on the substantive:
S. Aj. 796 ( = ὑπὸ αὐλῇ). Frequent in poetry.
σκηνῆς ὕπαυλος under the shelter of the tent
b. Some adjectives are freely used with the genitive in poetry, as
A. Ag. 1156. This is rare in prose:
λάμοι Πάριδος ὀλέθριοι φίλων the marriage of Paris bringing ruin on his friends
X. M. 4.3.7, κακοῦργος μὲν τῶν ἄλλων, ἑαυτοῦ δὲ κακουργότερος doing evil to the others but more to himself 1. 5. 3,
τὸ πῦρ ἐπίκουρον ψύ_χους fire that protects against cold
Aes. 3.157. These adjectives are practically equivalent to substantives. Cp. amans patriae.
ὁ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀλιτήριος the curse and destroyer of Greece