]. THE GENITIVE PROPER WITH VERBS
THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE
A verb may be followed by the partitive genitive if the action affects the object only in part. If the entire object is affected, the verb in question takes the accusative.
Ἀδρήστοιο δ' ἔγημε θυγατρῶν he married one of Adrastus' daughters Ξ 121, τῶν πώλων λαμβάνει he takes some of the colts X. A. 4.5.35, λαβόντες τοῦ βαρβαρικοῦ στρατοῦ taking part of the barbarian force 1. 5. 7, κλέπτοντες τοῦ ὄρους seizing part of the mountain secretly 4. 6. 15 (cp. τοῦ ὄρους κλέψαι τι 4. 6. cross11), τῆς γῆς ἔτεμον they ravaged part of the land T. 2.56 (cp. τὴν γῆν πᾶσαν ἔτεμον 2. 57 and ἔτεμον τῆς γῆς τὴν πολλήν 2. cross56), κατεά_γη τῆς κεφαλῆς he had a hole knocked somewhere in his head Ar. Vesp. 1428 (
τὴν κεφαλὴν κατεα_γέναι to have one's head broken
With impersonals a partitive genitive does duty as the subject:
X. C. 7.2.28,
πολέμου οὐ μετῆν αὐτῇ she had no share in war
And. 4.34. Cp. cross1318.
ἐμοὶ οὐδαμόθεν προσήκει τούτου τοῦ πρά_γματος I have no part whatever in this affair
The genitive is used with verbs of sharing.
X. A. 5.3.9, μετεδίδοσαν ἀλλήλοις ὧν (= τούτων ἃ) εἶχον ἕκαστοι they shared with each other what each had 4. 5. 6,
πάντες μετεῖχον τῆς ἑορτῆς all took part in the festival
P. L. 721b,
τὸ ἀνθρώπινον γένος μετείληφεν ἀθανασία_ς the human race has received a portion of immortality
X. M. 2.6.22,
σί_του κοινωνεῖν to take a share of food
X. H. 2.4.40,
δικαιοσύνης οὐδὲν ὑ_μῖν προσήκει you have no concern in righteous dealing
P. R. 550c. So with μεταλαγχάνειν get a share (along with somebody else), συναίρεσθαι and κοινοῦσθαι take part in, μεταιτεῖν and μεταποιεῖσθαι demand a share in.
πολι_τεία_, ἐν ᾗ πένησιν οὐ μέτεστιν ἀρχῆς a form of government in which the poor have no part in the management of affairs
The part received or taken, if expressed, stands in the accusative. οἱ τύραννοι τῶν μεγίστων ἀγαθῶν ἐλάχιστα μετέχουσι tyrants have the smallest por-
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tion in the greatest blessings X. Hi. 2.6,
Ar. Vesp. 972.
τούτων μεταιτει_ τὸ μέρος he demands his share of this
a. With μέτεστι the part may be added in the nominative:
E. I. T. 1299.
μέτεστι χὐ_μῖν τῶν πεπρα_γμένων μέρος ye too have had a share in these doings
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to touch, take hold of, make trial of.
T. 2.48, τῆς γνώμης τῆς αὐτῆς ἔχομαι I hold to the same opinion 1. 140,
ἥψατο τῶν ἀνθρώπων the plague laid hold of the men
P. S. 217d,
ἐν τῇ ἐχομένῃ ἐμοῦ κλί_νῃ on the couch next to me
D. 1.20, ὅπως πειρῷντο τοῦ τείχους to make an attempt on (a part of) the wall T. 2.81. So with ψαύειν touch (rare in prose), ἀντέχεσθαι cling to, ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι and συλλαμβάνεσθαι lay hold of.
ἀντιλάβεσθε τῶν πρα_γμάτων take our public policy in hand
The genitive of the part, with the accusative of the person (the whole) who has been touched, is chiefly poetical:
τὸν δὲ πεσόντα ποδῶν ἔλαβε but him as he fell, he seized by his feet
X. A. 1.6.10 (but
ἔλαβον τῆς ζώνης τὸν Ὀρόντα_ν they took hold of Orontas by the girdle
P. Charm. 153b),
μοῦ λαβόμενος τῆς χειρός taking me by the hand
X. Eq. 6.9 (cp.
ἄγειν τῆς ἡνία_ς τὸν ἵππον to lead the horse by the bridle
βοῦν δ' ἀγέτην κεράων they led the cow by the horns
Verbs of beseeching take the genitive by analogy to verbs of touching: ἐμὲ λισσέσκετο γούνων she besought me by (clasping) my knees I 451 (cp. γενείου ἁψάμενος λίσσεσθαι beseech by touching his chin K cross454).
The genitive is used with verbs of beginning.
X. A. 1.6.5, τοῦ λόγου ἤρχετο ὧδε he began his speech as follows 3. 2. 7. On ἄρχειν as distinguished from ἄρχεσθαι see cross1734. 5.
ἔφη Κῦρον ἄρχειν τοῦ λόγου ὧδε he said that Cyrus began the discussion as follows
b. Ablatival ( cross1391) denoting the point of departure: σέο δ' ἄρξομαι I will make a beginning with thee I 97. In this sense ἀπό or ἐξ is usually added: ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ σοῦ D. 18.297,
P. S. 186b.
ἄρξομαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἰ_α_τρικῆς λέγων I will make a beginning by speaking of medicine
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to aim at, strive after, desire (genitive of the end desired).
X. C. 1.6.29,
ἀνθρώπων στοχάζεσθαι to aim at men
ἐφι_έμενοι τῶν κερδῶν desiring gain
P. R. 438a,
πάντες τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐπιθυ_μοῦσιν all men desire what is good
τὸ ἐρᾶν τῶν καλῶν the passionate love of what is noble
X. S. 4. 36,
πεινῶσι χρημάτων they are hungry for wealth
P. R. 562c. So with ὀϊστεύειν shoot at (poet.), λιλαίεσθαι desire (poet.), γλίχεσθαι desire. φιλεῖν love, ποθεῖν long for take the accusative.
πόλις ἐλευθερία_ς διψήσα_σα a state thirsting for freedom
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to reach, obtain (genitive of the end attained).
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τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐφικέσθαι to attain to virtue
X. A. 3.3.7, σπονδῶν ἔτυχε he obtained a truce 3. 1. 28.
οἱ ἀκοντισταὶ βραχύτερα ἠκόντιζον ἢ ὡς ἐξικνεῖσθαι τῶν σφενδονητῶν the javelin-throwers did not hurl far enough to reach the slingers
So with κυρεῖν obtain (poet.), κληρονομεῖν inherit, ἀποτυγχάνειν fail to hit. τυγχάνειν, when compounded with ἐν, ἐπί, παρά, περί, and σύν, takes the dative. λαγχάνειν obtain by lot usually takes the accusative.
a. This genitive and that of 1349 form the genitive of the goal.
The genitive of the thing obtained may be joined with an ablatival genitive ( cross1410) of the person:
X. A. 5.7.33. But where the thing obtained is expressed by a neuter pronoun, the accusative is employed.
οὗ δὲ δὴ πάντων οἰόμεθα τεύξεσθαι ἐπαίνου in a case where we expect to win praise from all men
It is uncertain whether verbs signifying to miss take a partitive or an ablatival genitive:
X. A. 3.4.15,
οὐδεὶς ἡμάρτανεν ἀνδρός no one missed his man
σφαλέντες τῆς δόξης disappointed in expectations
Verbs of approaching and meeting take the genitive according to 1343 or 1349. These verbs are poetical. Thus, ἀντιόων ταύρων for the purpose of obtaining (his share of) bulls α 25, ἀντήσω τοῦδ' ἀνέρος I will encounter this man II 423,
S. Aj. 709. In the meaning draw near to verbs of approaching take the dative ( cross1463).
πελάσαι νεῶν to approach the ships
The genitive is used with verbs of smelling.
Ar. Eccl. 524. So πνεῖν μύρου to breathe (smell of) perfume S. fr. 140.
ὄζω μύρου I smell of perfume
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to enjoy, taste, eat, drink.
X. M. 4.3.11,
ἀπολαύομεν πάντων τῶν ἀγαθῶν we enjoy all the good things
P. R. 352b,
εὐωχοῦ τοῦ λόγου enjoy the discourse
X. A. 3.1.3. So (rarely) with ἥδεσθαι take pleasure in.
ὀλίγοι σί_του ἐγεύσαντο few tasted food
a. Here belong ἐσθίειν, πί_νειν when they do not signify to eat up or drink up:
X. H. 3.3.6,
ὠμῶν ἐσθίειν αὐτῶν to eat them alive
χ 11, as boire du vin (but
πί_νειν οἴνοιο drink some wine
Ξ 5, as boire le vin). Words denoting food and drink are placed in the accusative when they are regarded as kinds of nourishment.
πί_νειν οἶνον drink wine
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to remember, remind, forget, care for , and neglect.
τῶν ἀπόντων φίλων μέμνησο remember your absent friends
βούλομαι δ' ὑ_μᾶς ἀναμνῆσαι τῶν ἐμοὶ πεπρα_γμένων I desire to remind you of my past actions
X. A. 3.2.25, ἐπιμελόμενοι οἱ μὲν ὑποζυγίων, οἱ δὲ σκευῶν some taking care of the pack animals, others of the baggage 4. 3. 30,
δέδοικα μὴ ἐπιλαθώμεθα τῆς οἴκαδε ὁδοῦ I fear lest we may forget the way home
P. Cr. 48a, τί ἡμῖν τῆς τῶν πολλῶν δόξης μέλει; what do we care for the world's opinion? 44 c,
τῆς τῶν πολλῶν δόξης δεῖ ἡμᾶς φροντίζειν we must pay heed to the world's opinion
I. 1.48, μηδενὸς ὀλιγωρεῖτε μηδὲ καταφρονεῖτε (cp. cross1385) τῶν προστεταγμένων neither neglect nor despise any command laid on you 3. 48.
τοῖς σπουδαίοις οὐχ οἷόν τε τῆς ἀρετῆς ἀμελεῖν the serious cannot disregard virtue
So with μνημονεύειν remember (but usually with the accus., especially of things), ἀμνημονεῖν not to speak of, κήδεσθαι care for, ἐντρέπεσθαι give heed to,
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ἐνθυ_μεῖσθαι think deeply of, προορᾶν make provision for (in Hdt.), μεταμέλει μοι it repents me, καταμελεῖν neglect.
Many of these verbs also take the accusative. With the accus. μεμνῆσθαι means to remember something as a whole, with the gen. to remember something about a thing, bethink oneself. The accus. is usually found with verbs of remembering and forgetting when they mean to hold or not to hold in memory, and when the object is a thing. Neuter pronouns must stand in the accus. ἐπιλανθάνεσθαι forget takes either the genitive or the accusative, λανθάνεσθαι (usually poetical) always takes the genitive. μέλει it is a care, ἐπιμέλεσθαι care for, μεμνῆσθαι think about may take περί with the genitive. οἶδα generally means I remember when it has a person as the object (in the accusative).
Verbs of reminding may take two accusatives:
D. 19.25 ( cross1628).
ταῦθ' ὑπέμνησ' ὑ_μᾶς I have reminded you of this
With μέλει, the subject, if a neuter pronoun, may sometimes stand in the nominative (the personal construction):
P. Phae. 238d. Except in poetry the subject in the nominative is very rare with other words than neuter pronouns: χοροὶ πᾶσι μέλουσι P. L. 835e.
ταῦτα θεῷ μελήσει God will care for this
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to hear and perceive: ἀκούειν, κλύειν (poet.) hear, ἀκροᾶσθαι listen to, αἰσθάνεσθαι perceive, πυνθάνεσθαι hear, learn of, συνι_έναι understand, ὀσφραίνεσθαι scent. The person or thing, whose words, sound, etc. are perceived by the senses, stands in the genitive; the words, sound, etc. generally stand in the accusative.
τινὸς ἤκουσ' εἰπόντος I heard somebody say
X. A. 4.2.8, ἀκούσαντες τὸν θόρυβον hearing the noise 4. 4. 21,
ἀκούσαντες τῆς σάλπιγγος hearing the sound of the trumpet
X. C. 1.3.10,
ἀκροώμενοι τοῦ ᾄδοντος listening to the singer
ὅσοι ἀλλήλων ξυνί_εσαν all who understood each other
P. Pr. 325c (verbs of understanding, συνι_έναι and ἐπίστασθαι, usually take the accus.),
ἐπειδὰν συνι_ῇ τις τὰ λεγόμενα when one understands what is said
Ar. Ran. 654.
κρομμύων ὀσφραίνομαι I smell onions
a. A supplementary participle is often used in agreement with the genitive of the person from whom something is heard:
P. A. 37d.
λέγοντος ἐμοῦ ἀκροά_σονται οἱ νέοι the young men will listen when I speak
b. The accusative is almost always used when the thing heard is expressed by a substantivized neuter adjective or participle, but the genitive plural in the case of οὗτος, ὅδε, αὐτός, and ὅς is frequent.
A double genitive, of the person and of the thing, is rare with ἀκούειν:
τῶν ὐπὲρ τῆς γραφῆς δικαίων ἀκούειν μου to listen to my just pleas as regards the indictment
ἀκούειν, αἰσθάνεσθαι, πυνθάνεσθαι, meaning to become aware of, learn, take the accusative (with a participle in indirect discourse, 2112 b) of a personal or impersonal object: οἱ δέ Πλαταιῆς, ὡς ᾔσθοντο ἔνδον τε ὄντας τοὺς Θηβαίους και κατειλημμένην τὴν πόλιν but the Plataeans, when they became aware that the Thebans were inside and that the city had been captured T. 2.3, πυθόμενοι Ἀρταξέρξην τεθνηκότα having learned that Artaxerxes was dead 4. 50.
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a. To hear a thing is usually ἀκούειν τι when the thing heard is something definite and when the meaning is simply hear, not listen to.
ἀκούειν, ἀκροᾶσθαι, πυνθἁνεσθαι, meaning to hear from, learn from, take the genitive of the actual source ( cross1411).
ἀκούειν, κλύειν, πυνθάνεσθαίτινος may mean to hear about, hear of:
εἰ δέ κε τεθνηῶτος ἀκούσῃς but if you hear that he is dead
S. O. C. 307,
κλύων σοῦ hearing about thee
T. 4.6. For the participle (not in indirect discourse) see cross2112 a. περί is often used with the genitive without the participle.
ὡς ἐπύθοντο τῆς Πύλου κατειλημμένης when they heard of the capture of Pylos
In the meaning heed, hearken, obey, verbs of hearing generally take the genitive: ἄκουε πάντων, ἐκλέγου δ' ἃ συμφέρει listen to everything, but choose that which is profitable Men. Sent. 566,
X. C. 8.1.4. πείθεσθαι takes the genitive, instead of the dative, by analogy to this use (Hdt. 6.12, T. 7.73). (On the dative with ἀκούειν obey see cross1465.)
τῶν πολεμίων ἀκούειν to submit to enemies
αἰσθάνεσθαι takes the genitive, or (less frequently) the accusative, of the thing immediately perceived by the senses:
X. H. 4.4.4,
τῆς κραυγῆς ᾔσθοντο they heard the noise
X. C. 3.1.4. The genitive is less common than the accusative when the perception is intellectual:
ᾔσθετο τὰ γιγνόμενα he perceived what was happening
T. 5.83. Cp. cross1363.
ὡς ᾔσθοντο τειχιζόντων when they heard that they were progressing with their fortification
Some verbs, ordinarily construed with the accusative, take the genitive by the analogy of αἰσθάνεσθαι, etc.:
X. C. 7.2.18,
ἔγνω ἄτοπα ἐμοῦ ποιοῦντος he knew that I was acting absurdly
P. G. 517c. This construction of verbs of knowing (and showing) occurs in Attic only when a participle accompanies the genitive.
ἀγνοοῦντες ἀλλήλων ὅ τι λέγομεν each of us mistaking what the other says
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to fill, to be full of. The thing filled is put in the accusative.
οὐκ ἐμπλήσετε τὴν θάλατταν τριήρων ; will you not cover the sea with your triremes?
P. A. 32c,
ἀναπλῆσαι αἰτιῶν to implicate in guilt
X. Vect. 6.1,
τροφῆς εὐπορεῖν to have plenty of provisions
X. O. 8.8,
τριήρης σεσαγμένη ἀνθρώπων a trireme stowed with men
P. L. 713c. So with πλήθειν, πληροῦν, γέμειν, πλουτεῖν, βρί_θειν (poet.), βρύειν (poet.).
ὕβρεως μεστοῦσθαι to be filled with pride
a. Here belong also
S. El. 1423,
χεὶρ στάζει θυηλῆς Ἄρεος his hand drips with sacrifice to Ares
P. S. 203b,
μεθυσθεὶς τοῦ νέκταρος intoxicated with nectar
P. Phae. 230b. The instrumental dative is sometimes used.
ἡ πηγὴ ῥεῖ ψυ_χροῦ ὕο̄ατος the spring flows with cold water
The genitive is used with verbs signifying to rule, command, lead.
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X. O. 21.12,
θεῖον τὸ ἐθελόντων ἄρχειν it is divine to rule over willing subjects
P. Menex. 239e,
τῆς θαλάττης ἐκράτει he was master of the sea
P. S. 195c,
Ἔρως τῶν θεῶν βασιλεύει Love is king of the gods
T. 2.10, στρατηγεῖν τῶν ξένων to be general of the mercenaries X. A.
ἡγεῖτο τῆς ἐξόδου he led the expedition
2. 6. 28. So with τυραννεῖν be absolute master of, ἀνἀσσειν be lord of (poet.), ἡγεμονεύειν be commander of. This genitive is connected with that of 1402.
Several verbs of ruling take the accusative when they mean to conquer, overcome (so κρατεῖν), or when they express the domain over which the rule extends; as
T. 1.71. ἡγεῖσθαί τινι means to be a guide to any one, show any one the way. Cp. cross1537.
τὴν Πελοπόννησον πειρᾶσθε μὴ ἐλά_σσω ἐξηγεῖσθαι try not to lessen your dominion over the Peloponnese