Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The vocative is used in exclamations and in direct address: ὦ Ζεῦ καὶ θεοί oh Zeus and ye gods P. Pr. 310d, ἄνθρωπε my good fellow X. C. 2.2.7. The vocative forms an incomplete sentence ( cross904 d).

a. The vocative is never followed immediately by δέ or γάρ.


In ordinary conversation and public speeches, the polite is usually added. Without the vocative may express astonishment, joy, contempt, a threat, or a warning, etc. Thus ἀκούεις Αἰσχίνη; d'ye hear, Aeschines? D. 18.121. But this distinction is not always observed, though in general has a familiar tone which was unsuited to elevated poetry.


The vocative is usually found in the interior of a sentence. At the beginning it is emphatic. In prose ἔφη, in poetry , may stand between the vocative and an attributive or between an attributive and the vocative; in poetry may be repeated for emphasis.

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In late poetry a predicate adjective may be attracted into the vocative: ὄλβιε κῶρε γένοιο blessed, oh boy, mayest thou be Theocr. 17. 66. Cp. Matutine pater seu Iane libentius audis Hor. S. 2. 6. 20.


By the omission of σύ or ὑ_μεῖς the nominative with the article may stand in apposition to a vocative: ὦ ἄνδοες οἱ παρόντες you, gentlemen, who are present P. Pr. 337c, ὦ Κῦρε καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι Πέρσαι Cyrus and the rest of you Persians X. C. 3.3.20; and in apposition to the pronoun in the verb: ὁ παῖς, ἀκολούθει boy, attend me Ar. Ran. 521.


The nominative may be used in exclamations as a predicate with the subject unexpressed: ὦ πικρὸς θεοῖς oh loathed of heaven S. Ph. 254, φίλος ὦ Μενέλα_ε ah dear Menelaus Δ 189; and connected with the vocative by and: ὦ πόλις καὶ δῆμε oh city and people Ar. Eq. 273. In exclamations about a person: ὢ γενναῖος oh the noble man P. Phae. 227c.

a. οὗτος is regular in address: οὗτος, τί πάσχεις, ὦ Ξανθία_; ho there, I say, Xanthias, what is the matter with you? Ar. Vesp. 1; ὦ οὗτος, Αἴα_ς ho there, I say, Ajax S. Aj. 89.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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