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THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
The demonstrative pronouns are used substantively or adjectively: οὗτος, or οὗτος ὁ ἀνήρ, this man.
A demonstrative pronoun may agree in gender with a substantive predicated of it, if connected with the substantive by a copulative verb ( cross917) expressed or understood: αὕτη (for τοῦτο)
X. C. 8.7.24, εἰ δέ τις ταύτην (for τοῦτο)
ἀρίστη διδασκαλία_ this is the best manner of learning
εἰρήνην ὑπολαμβάνει but if any one regards this as peace
a. But the unattracted neuter is common, especially in definitions where the pronoun is the predicate: τοῦτ' ἔστιν ἡ δικαιοσύνη this is (what we call) justice P. R. 432b. So οὐχ ὕβρις ταῦτ' ἐστί; is not this insolence? Ar. Ran. 21.
οὗτος and ὅδε this usually refer to something near in place, time, or thought; ἐκεῖνος that refers to something more remote. οὑτοσί_ and ὁδί_ are emphatic, deictic ( cross333 g) forms (this here).
Distinction between οὗτος and ὅδε.—ὅδε hic points with emphasis to an object in the immediate (actual or mental) vicinity of the speaker, or to something just noticed. In the drama it announces the approach of a new actor. ὅδε is even used of the speaker himself as the demonstrative of the first person ( cross1242). οὗτος iste may refer to a person close at hand, but less vividly, as in statements in regard to a person concerning whom a question has been asked. When ὅδε and οὗτος are contrasted, ὅδε refers to the more important, οὗτος to the less important, object. Thus,
S. Ant. 155, αὕτη πέλας σοῦ here she (the person you ask for) is near thee S. El. 1474,
ἀλλ' ὅδε βασιλεὺς χωρεῖ but lo! here comes the king
S. Ant. 64. See also cross1245. οὗτος has a wider range of use than the other demonstratives.
καὶ ταῦτ' ἀκούειν κἄ_τι τῶνδ' ἀλγί_ονα so that we obey both in these things and in things yet more grievous
ὅδε is used in poetry for ἐγώ: τῆσδέ ( = ἐμοῦ)
S. Tr. 305. Also for the possessive pronoun of the first person:
γε ζώσης ἔτι while I still live
S. El. 1004.
εἴ τις τούσδ' ἀκούσεται λόγους if any one shall hear these my words
οὗτος is sometimes used of the second person: τίς οὑτοσί_; who's this here? ( = who are you?) Ar. Ach. 1048. So in exclamations: οὗτος, τί ποιεῖς; you there! what are you doing? Ar. Ran. 198.
τάδε, τάδε πάντα (ταῦτα πάντα) are used of something close at hand:
οὐκ Ἴωνες τάδε εἰσίν the people here are not Ionians
οὗτος (τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος, and οὕτως) generally refers to what precedes, ὅδε (τοιόσδε, τοσόσδε, τηλικόσδε, and ὧδε) to what follows.
Thus, τοιάδε ἔλεξεν he spoke as follows, but τοιαῦτα (τοσαῦτα) εἰπών after speaking thus. Cp.
X. C. 5.2.31.
ὁ Κῦρος ἀκούσα_ς τοῦ Γωβρύου τοιαῦτα τοιάδε πρὸς αὐτὸν ἔλεξε Cyrus after hearing these words of Gobryas answered him as follows
καὶ οὗτος meaning (1) he too, likewise; (2) and in fact, and that too, points back: -- 308 --
X. A. 2.6.30; ἀπόρων ἐστὶ . . . καὶ τούτων πονηρῶν it is characteristic of men without resources and that too worthless 2. 5. 21 (cp. cross1320). On καὶ ταῦτα see cross947.
Ἀγία_ς καὶ Σωκράτης . . . καὶ τούτω ἀπεθανέτην Agias and Socrates . . . they too were put to death
But οὗτος, etc. sometimes (especially in the neuter) refer to what follows, and ὅδε, etc. (though much less often) refer to what precedes:
X. A. 1.3.14,
μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον εἰ_πε τοσοῦτον but after him he spoke as follows
T. 4.58, τοιάδε παρακελευόμενος exhorting them thus (as set forth before) 7. 78, ὧδε θάπτουσιν they bury them thus (as described before) 2. 34, οὕτως ἔχει the case is as follows (often in the orators).
τοιούτους λόγους εἶπεν he spoke as follows
οὗτος (especially in the neuter τοῦτο) may refer forward to a word or sentence in apposition: ὡς μὴ τοῦτο μόνον ἐννοῶνται, τί πείσονται that they may not consider this alone (namely) what they shall suffer X. A. 3.1.41. So also οὕτως. ἐκεῖνος also may refer forward: ἐκεῖνο κερδαίνειν ἡγεῖται τὴν ἡδονήν this (namely) pleasure, it regards as gain P. R. 606b. Cp. cross990.
οὗτος (τοιοῦτος, etc.) is regularly, ὅδε (τοιόσδε, etc.) rarely, used as the demonstrative antecedent of a relative:
P. G. 473e. οὗτος is often used without a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence.
ὅταν τοιαῦτα λέγῃς, ἃ οὐδεὶς ἂν φήσειεν ἀνθρώπων when you say such things as no one in the world would say
When ὅδε retains its full force the relative clause is to be regarded as a supplementary addition:
P. Charm. 165a.
οὗ δὴ οὖν ἕνεκα λέγω ταῦτα πάντα τόδ' ἐστί but here's the reason why I say all this!
The demonstratives οὗτος, etc., when used as antecedents, have an emphatic force that does not reproduce the (unemphatic) English demonstrative those, e.g. in you released those who were present. Here Greek uses the participle (τοὺς παρόντας ἀπελύ_σατε L. 20.20) or omits the antecedent.
οὗτος (less often ἐκεῖνος) may take up and emphasize a preceding subject or object. In this use the pronoun generally comes first, but may be placed after an emphatic word: ποιήσαντες στήλην ἐψηφίσαντο εἰς ταύτην ἀναγράφειν τοὺς α'·λιτηρίους having made a slab they voted to inscribe on it the (names of the) offenders Lyc. 117,
P. R. 345b. The anaphoric αὐτός in its oblique cases is weaker ( cross1214).
ἃ ἂν εἴπῃς, ἔμμενε τούτοις whatever you say, hold to it
τοῦτο, ταῦτα (and αὐτό) may take up a substantive idea not expressed by a preceding neuter word: οἳ τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἠλευθέρωσαν· ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐδ' ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς βεβαιοῦμεν αὐτό (i.e. τὴν ἐλευθερία_ν) who freed Greece; whereas we cannot secure this (liberty) even for ourselves T. 1.122.
οὗτος (less frequently ἐκεῖνος) is used of well known persons and things. Thus, Γοργία_ς οὗτος this (famous) Gorgias P. Hipp. M. 282b (cp. ille), τούτους τοὺς συ_κοφάντα_ς these (notorious) informers P. Cr. 45a (cp. iste), τὸν Ἀριστείδην ἐκεῖνον that (famous) Aristides D. 3.21, Καλλία_ν ἐκεῖνον that (infamous) Callias 2. 19. ἐκεῖνος may be used of a deceased person (P. R. 368a).
When, in the same sentence, and referring to the same object, οὗτος (or ἐκεῖνος) is used more than once, the object thus designated is more or less emphatic: ὁ θεὸς ἐξαιρούμενος τούτων τὸν νοῦν τούτοις χρῆται ὑπηρέταις the god deprives them of their senses and employs them as his ministers P. Ion 534 c. For the repeated οὗτος (ἐκεῖνος) an oblique case of αὐτός is usual.
τοῦτο μέν . . . τοῦτο δέ first . . . secondly, partly . . . partly has, especially in Hdt., nearly the sense of τὸ μέν . . . τὸ δέ ( cross1111).
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ἐκεῖνος refers back (rarely forward, cross1248), but implies remoteness in place, time, or thought.
X. A. 1.8.26, νῆες ἐκεῖναι ἐπιπλέουσιν yonder are ships sailing up to us T. 1.51.
Κῦρος καθορᾷ βασιλέα_ καὶ τὸ ἀμφ' ἐκεῖνον στῖφος Cyrus perceives the king and the band around him
ἐκεῖνος may refer to any person other than the speaker and the person addressed; and may be employed of a person not definitely described, but referred to in a supposed case. It is even used of the person already referred to by αὐτός in an oblique case:
P. Pr. 310d. ἐκεῖνος, when so used, usually stands in a different case than αὐτός. The order ἐκεῖνος . . . αὐτός is found:
ἂ_ν αὐτῷ διδῷς ἀργύριον καὶ πείθῃς ἐκεῖνον if you give him money and persuade him
X. H. 3.2.9.
πρὸς μὲν ἐκείνους οὐκ εῖπεν ἣν ἔχοι γνώμην, ἀλλ' ἀπέπεμψεν αὐτούς he did not tell them the plan he had, but dismissed them
When used to set forth a contrast to another person, ἐκεῖνος may even refer to the subject of the leading verb (apparent reflexive use): ὅταν ἐν τῇ γῇ ὁρῶσιν ἡμᾶς δῃοῦντάς τε καὶ τἀ_κείνων φθείροντας when they (the Athenians) see us (the Dorians) in their land plundering and destroying their property ( = τὰ ἑαυτῶν) T. 2.11, ἔλεξε τοῖς Χαλδαίοις ὅτι ἥκοι οἴτε ἀπολέσαι ἐπιθυ_μῶν ἐκείνους οὔτε πολεμεῖν δεόμενος he said to the Chaldaeans that he had come neither with the desire to destroy them (ἐκείνους is stronger than αὐτούς) nor because he wanted to war with them X. C. 3.2.12.
In the phrase ὅδε ἐκεῖνος, ὅδε marks a person or thing as present, ἐκεῖνος a person or thing mentioned before or well known:
S. O. C. 138. Colloquial expressions are τοῦτ' ἐκεῖνο there it is! (lit. this is that) Ar. Ach. 41, and
ὅδ' ἐκεῖνος ἐγώ lo! I am he
E. Med. 98.
τόδ' ἐκεῖνο I told you so
Distinction between οὗτος and ἐκεῖνος.—When reference is made to one of two contrasted objects, οὗτος refers to the object nearer to the speaker's thought, or to the more important object, or to the object last mentioned. Thus, ὥστε πολὺ ἂν δικαιότερον ἐκείνοις τοῖς γράμμασιν ἢ τούτοις πιστεύοιτε so that you must with more justice put your trust in those lists (not yet put in as evidence) than in these muster-rolls (already mentioned) L. 16.7,
X. C. 5.5.29. ἐκεῖνος may refer to an object that has immediately preceded: καὶ (δεῖ) τὸ βέλτιστον ἀεί, μὴ τὸ ῥᾷστον, ἅπαντας λέγειν· ἐπ' ἐκεῖνο μὲν (i.e. τὸ ῥᾷστον) γὰρ ἡ φύσις αὐτὴ βαδιεῖται, ἐπὶ τοῦτο δὲ (τὸ βέλτιστον)
εἰ δὲ τοῦτό σοι δοκεῖ μι_κρὸν εἶναι, ἐκεῖνο κατανόησον but if this appear to you unimportant, consider the following
τῷ λόγῳ δεῖ προάγεσθαι διδάσκοντα τὸν ἀγαθὸν πολί_την it is necessary that all should speak what is always most salutary, not what is most agreeable; for to the latter nature herself will incline; to the former a good citizen must direct by argument and instruction