Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Adjectives of Place.—When used in the predicate position ( cross1168) ἄκρος (high) means the top of, μέσος (middle) means the middle of, ἔσχατος (extreme) means the end of. Cp. summus, medius, extremus.

Attributive PositionPredicate Position
τὸ ἄκρον ὅρος the lofty mountainἄκρον τὸ ὄρος )the top of
τὸ ὄρος ἄκρον )the mountain
ἡ μέση ἀγορά_ the central marketμέση ἡ ἀγορά_ )the centre of
ἡ ἀγορὰ_ μέση )the market
ἡ ἐσχάτη νῆσος the farthest islandἐσχάτη ἡ νῆσος )the verge of
ἡ νῆσος ἐσχάτη )the island

Thus, περὶ ἄκραις ταῖς χερσὶ χειρῖδες gloves on the fingers (points of the hands) X. C. 8.8.17, διὰ μέσου τοῦ παραδείσου ῥεῖ flows through the middle of the park X. A. 1.2.7. The meaning of the predicate position is also expressed by (τὸ) ἄκρον τοῦ ὄρους, (τὸ) μέσον τῆς ἀγορᾶς, etc.

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μόνος, ἥμισυς.—(1) Attributive: ὁ μόνος παῖς the only son, αἱ ἡμίσειαι χάριτες half-favours. (2) Predicate: μόνος ὁ παῖς (or ὁ παῖς μόνος) παίζει the boy plays alone, ἥμισυς ὁ βίος (or ὁ βίος ἥμισυς) half of life, τὰ ἅρματα τὰ ἡμίσεα half of the chariots.

αὐτός: (1) Attributive: ὁ αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man. (2) Predicate: αὐτὸς ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself.


πᾶς (and in the strengthened forms ἅπα_ς, σύμπα_ς all together). a. In the attributive position πᾶς denotes the whole regarded as the sum of all its parts (the sum total, the collective body): οἱ πάντες πολῖται the whole body of citizens, ἡ πᾶσα Σικελία_ the whole of Sicily, ἀποκτεῖναι τοὺς ἅπαντας Μυτιληναίους to put to death the entire Mitylenean population T. 3.36.

N.—Hence, with numbers, οἱ πάντες, τὰ σύμπαντα in all: ἑξακόσιοι καὶ χί_λιοι οἱ πάντες 1600 in all T. 1.60.

b. In the predicate (and usual) position πᾶς means all: πάντες οἱ πολῖται or (often emphatic) οἱ πολῖται πάντες all the citizens (individually), περὶ πάντας τοὺς θεοὺς ἠσεβήκα_σι καὶ εἰς ἅπα_σαν τὴν πόλιν ἡμαρτήκα_σιν they have committed impiety towards all the gods and have sinned against the whole State L. 14.42.

c. Without the article: πάντες πολῖται all (conceivable) citizens, μισθωσάμενοι πάντας ἀνθρώπους hiring every conceivable person L. 12.60.

N. 1.—In the meaning pure, nothing but, πᾶς is strictly a predicate and has no article: κύκλῳ φρουρούμενος ὑπὸ πάντων πολεμίων hemmed in by a ring of guards all of whom are his enemies ( = πάντες ὑφ' ὧν φρουρεῖται πολέμιοί εἰσι) P. R. 579b. So πᾶσα κακία_ utter baseness.

N. 2.—The article is not used with πᾶς if the noun, standing alone, would have no article.

N. 3.—In the singular, πᾶς often means every: σὺν σοὶ πᾶσα ὁδὸς εὔπορος with you every road is easy to travel X. A. 2.5.9, πᾶσα θάλασσα every sea T. 2.41.


ὅλος: (1) Attributive: τὸ ὅλον στράτευμα the whole army; (2) Predicate: ὅλον τὸ στράτευμα (or τὸ στράτευμα ὅλον) the army as a whole, τὴν νύκτα ὅλην the entire night. With no article: ὅλον στράτευμα a whole army, ὅλα στρατεύματα whole armies.


The demonstrative pronouns οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and αὐτός self, in agreement with a noun, usually take the article, and stand in the predicate position ( cross1168): οὗτος ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ οὗτος (never ὁ οὗτος ἀνήρ) this man, αὐτὸς ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself (ὁ αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man cross1173).


One or more words may separate the demonstrative from its noun: ὁ τούτου ἔρως τοῦ ἀνθρώπου the love of this man P. S. 213c. Note also τῶν οἰκείων τινὲς τῶν ἐκείνων some of their slaves (some of the slaves of those men) P. A. 33d.


οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος sometimes omit the article.

a. Regularly, when the noun is in the predicate: αὕτη ἔστω ἱκανὴ ἀπολογία_ let this be a sufficient defence P. A. 24b, οἶμαι ἐμὴν ταύτην πατρίδα εἶναι I think this is my native country X. A. 4.8.4.

b. Usually, with proper names, except when anaphoric ( cross1120 b): ἐκεῖνος Θουκυ_δίδης that (well-known) Thucydides Ar. Ach. 708.

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c. Usually, with definite numbers: ταύτα_ς τριά_κοντα μνᾶς these thirty minae D. 27.23.

d. Optionally, when a relative clause follows: ἐπὶ γῆν τήνδε ἤλθομεν, ἐν ᾗ οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν Μήδων ἐκράτησαν we have come against this land, in which our fathers conquered the Medes T. 2.74.

e. In the phrase (often contemptuous) οὗτος ἀνήρ P. G. 505c; and in other expressions denoting some emotion: ἄνθρωπος οὑτοσί_ D. 18.243.

f. Sometimes, when the demonstrative follows its noun: ἐπίγραμμα τόδε T. 6.59. So often in Hdt.

g. Frequently, in poetry.


ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος both, ἑκάτερος each (of two), ἕκαστος each (of several) have the predicate position. But with ἕκαστος the article is often omitted: κατὰ τὴν ἡμέρα_ν ἑκάστην (day by day and) every day, καθ' ἑκάστην ἡμέρα_ν every day.


The demonstratives of quality and quantity, τοιοῦτος, τοιόσδε, τοσοῦτος, τοσόσδε, τηλικοῦτος, when they take the article, usually follow it: τῶν τοσούτων καὶ τοιούτων ἀγαθῶν of so many and such blessings D. 18.305, τοῦτο τὸ τοιοῦτον ἔθος such a practice as this 21. 123. ὁ δεῖνα such a one ( cross336) regularly takes the article.

a. But the predicate position occurs: τοσαύτη ἡ πρώτη παρασκευὴ πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον διέπλει so great was the first armament which crossedover for the war T. 6.44.


An attributive, following the article, may be separated from its noun by a pronoun: ἡ πάλαι ἡμῶν φύσις our old nature P. S. 189d, ἡ στενὴ αὕτη ὁδός (for αὕτη ἡ στενὴ ὁδός) this narrow road X. A. 4.2.6.


Possessive pronouns take the article only when a definite person or thing is meant, and stand between article and noun: τὸ ἐμὸν βιβλίον my book, τὰ ἡμέτερα βιβλία our books.

a. But names of relationship, πόλις, πατρίς, etc., do not require the article ( cross1140).


The article is not used with possessive pronouns or the genitive of personal and reflexive pronouns (cp. cross1184, cross1185):

a. When no particular object is meant: ἐμὸν βιβλίον or βιβλίον μου a book of mine.

b. When these pronouns belong to the predicate: μαθητὴς γέγονα σός I have become a pupil of yours P. Euth. 5a, οὐ λόγους ἐμαυτοῦ λέγων not speaking words of my own D. 9.41.


In the attributive position ( cross1154) stands the genitive of the demonstrative, reflexive, and reciprocal pronouns. τὸ τούτου βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τούτου his book, τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ my own book; μετεπέμψατο τὴν ἑαυτοῦ θυγατέρα καὶ τὸν παῖδα αὐτῆς he sent for his daughter and her child X. C. 1.3.1.

a. The type τὸ βιβλίον τούτου is rare and suspected except when another attributive is added: τῇ νῦν ὕβρει τούτου D. 4.3. The types τὸ βιβλίον ἐμαυτοῦ (Hdt. 6.23) and τὸ αὐτοῦ βιβλίον (T. 6.102) are rare.

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In the predicate position stands

a. The genitive of the personal pronouns (whether partitive or not): τὸ βιβλίον μου (σου, αὐτοῦ, etc.), or μου σου, αὐτοῦ. etc.) τὸ βιβλίον when other words precede, as ὃς ἔχει σου τὴν ὰδελοην who has your sister to wife And. 1.50.

b. The genitive of the other pronouns used partitively.

N. 1.—Homer does not use the article in the above cases, and often employs the orthotone forms (σεῖο μέγα κλέος thy great fame π 241). Even in Attic ἐμοῦ for μου occurs (ἐμοῦ τὰ φορτία my wares Ar. Vesp. 1398).

N. 2.—The differences of position between 1184 and 1185 may be thus illustrated:

My book is pretty:καλόν ἐστί τὸ βιβλίον μου.
καλόν ἐστί μου τὸ βιβλίον.
My pretty book:τὸ καλόν μου βιβλίον.
They read their books:τὰ ἑαυτῶν βιβλία ἀναγιγνώσκουσι.

1186 INTERROGATIVES, ἄλλος, πολύς, ὀλίγος WITH THE ARTICLE

The interrogatives τίς, ποῖος may take the article when a question is asked about an object before mentioned: ΣΩ. νῦν δὴ ἐκεῖνα, ὦ Φαῖδρε, δυνάμεθα κρί_νειν. ΦΑΙ. τὰ ποῖα; SOCR. Now at last we can decide those questions. PH. The what questions? P. Phae. 277a.


So even with a personal pronoun: A. δεῦρο δὴ εὐθὺ ἡμῶν . . . B. ποῖ λέγεις καὶ παρὰ τίνας τοὺς ὑ_μᾶς; A. Come hither straight to us. B. Whither do you mean and who are you that I am to come to (you being who)? P. Lys. 203b.


ἄλλος other.—ὁ ἄλλος in the singular usually means the rest (ἡ ἄλλη Ἑλλάς the rest of Greece); in the plural. the others (οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες the other (ceteri) Greeks, but ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες other (alii) Greeks). A substantivized adjective or participle usually has the article when it stands in apposition to οἱ ἄλλοι: τἆλλα τὰ πολι_τικά the other civic affairs X. Hi. 9.5. On ἄλλος, ὁ ἄλλος (sometimes ἕτερος) besides, see cross1272.


πολύς, ὀλίγος· τὸ πολύ usually means the great (er) part, οἱ πολλοί the multitude, the vulgar crowd; πλείονες several, οἱ πλείονες the majority, the mass; πλεῖστοι very many, οἱ πλεῖστοι the most; ὁλίγοι few, οἱ ὀλίγοι the oligarchs (as opposed to οἱ πολλοί). Note πολύς predicative: ἐπεὶ ἑώρα_ πολλὰ τὰ κρέα_ when he saw that there was abundance of meat X. C. 1.3.6.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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