Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Previous SubSect

Next SubSect

POSITION OF THE ARTICLEAttributive Position of the Article 1154

A word or group of words standing between the article and its noun, or immediately after the article if the noun, with or without the article, precedes, is an attributive. Thus, ὁ σοφὸς ἀνήρ, ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός, or ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός (cp. cross1168).


This holds true except in the case of such post-positive words as μέν, δέ, γέ, τέ, γάρ, δή, οἶμαι, οὖν, τοίνυν; and τὶς in Hdt.: τῶν τις Περσέων one of the Persians 1. 85. In Attic, τὶς intervenes only when an attributive follows the article: τῶν βαρβάρων τινὲς ἱππέων some of the barbarian cavalry X. A. 2.5.32.


Adjectives, participles, adverbs, and (generally) prepositions with their cases, if preceded by the article, have attributive position.


(1) Commonly, as in English, the article and the attributive precede the noun: ὁ σοφὸς ἀνήρ the wise man. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the attributive. Thus, τῇ πρώτῃ ἡμέρᾳ on the first day T. 3.96, ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳ in former times D. 53.12, τὸν ἐκ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους φόβον ἰδών seeing the terror inspired by the Greeks in the barbarians X. A. 1.2.18.


(2) Less often, the article and the attributive follow the noun preceded by the article: ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός the wise man. Thus, τὸ στράτευμα τὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων the army of the Athenians T. 8.50, ἐν τῇ πορείᾳ τῇ μέχρι ἐπὶ θάλατταν on the journey as far as the sea X. A. 5.1.1. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the noun, as something definite or previously mentioned, and the attributive is added by way of explanation. So τοὺς κύνας τοὺς χαλεποὺς διδέα_σι they tie up the dogs, the savage ones (I mean) X. A. 5.8.24.


(3) Least often, the noun takes no article before it, when it would have none if the attributive were dropped: ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός the wise man (lit. a man, I mean the wise one). Thus, μάχαις ταῖς πλείοσι in the greater number of battles T. 7.11, σύνειμι μὲν θεοῖς, σύνειμι δὲ ἀνθρώποις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς I associate with gods, I associate with good men X. M. 2.1.32. In this arrangement the attributive is added by way of explanation; as in the last example: with men, the good (I mean).


A proper name, defining a preceding noun with the article, may itself have the article: ὁ ἀδελφὸς ὁ Ἀρεθούσιος (his) brother Arethusius D. 53.10. Cp. cross1142 c. An appositive to a proper name has the article when it designates a characteristic or something well known: ὁ Σόλων ὁ παλαιὸς ἦν φιλόδημος Solon of ancient times was a lover of the people Ar. Nub. 1187, Πα_σίων ὁ Μεγαρεύς Pasion, the Megarian X. A. 1.4.7.

-- 294 --


The genitive of a substantive limiting the meaning of another substantive may take any one of four positions:—

a. τὸ τοῦ πατρὸς βιβλίον the father's book (very common). Thus, ἡ τῶν τεθνεώτων ἀρετή the valour of the dead L. 12.36.

b. τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τοῦ πατρός (less common). Thus, ἡ οἰκία_ ἡ Σίμωνος the house of Simon L. 3.32.

c. τοῦ πατρὸς τὸ βιβλίον (to emphasize the genitive or when a genitive has just preceded). Thus, τῆς ϝί_κης τὸ μέγεθος the greatness of the victory X. H. 6.4.19.

d. τὸ βιβλίον τοῦ πατρός (very common). Thus, ἡ τόλμα τῶν λεγόντων the effrontery of the speakers L. 12.41. The genitive of the divided whole ( cross1306) is so placed or as in c.

N. 1.—A substantive with no article is sometimes followed by the article and the attributive genitive: ἐπὶ σκηνὴν ἰόντες τὴν Ξενοφῶντος going to the tent (namely, that) of Xenophon X. A. 6.4.19. Cp. cross1159.


The order bringing together the same forms of the article (περὶ τοῦ τοῦ πατρὸς βιβλίου) is avoided, but two or three articles of different form may stand together: τὸ τῆς τοῦ ξαίνοντος τέχνης ἔργον the work of the art of the wool-carder P. Pol. 281a.


The attributive position is employed with the possessive pronouns and the possessive genitives of the reflexive and demonstrative pronouns ( cross1184), αὐτος meaning same ( cross1173), and πᾶς expressing the sum total ( cross1174).


Two or more attributives of a substantive are variously placed: (1) εἰς τὰ_ς ἄλλα_ς Ἀρκαδικὰ_ς πόλεις to the other Arcadian cities X. H. 7.4.38. (2) τὸ ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ τὸ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Λυκαίου ἱερόν the sanctuary of Lycean Zeus in Arcadia P. R. 565d. (3) ἐς τὸν ἐπὶ τῷ στόματι τοῦ λιμένος στενοῦ ὄντος τὸν ἕτερον πύργον to the other tower at the mouth of the harbour which was narrow T. 8.90. (4) ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τῇ Χαρμίδου τῇ παρὰ τὸ Ὀλυμπιεῖον in the house of Charmides by the Olympieum And. 1.16. (5) ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ πόλεων Ἑλληνίδων from the Greek cities in Asia X. H. 4.3.15. (6) πρὸς τὴν ἐκ τῆς Σικελία_ς τῶν Ἀθηναίων μεγάλην κακοπρα_γία_ν with regard to the great failure of the Athenians in Sicily T. 8.2. (7) τὸ τεῖχος τὸ μακρὸν τὸ νότιον the long southern wall And. 3.7.


A relative or temporal clause may be treated as an attributive: Σόλων ἐμί_σει τοὺς οἷος οὗτος ἀνθρώπους Solon detested men like this man here D. 19.254.


Position of an attributive participle with its modifiers (A = article, N = noun, P = participle, D = word or words dependent on P): (1) APND: τὸν ἐφεστηκότα κίνδυ_νον τῇ πόλει the danger impending over the State D. 18.176. (2) APDN: τοὺς περιεστηκότας τῇ πόλει κινδύ_νους D. 18.179. (3) ADPN: τὸν τότε τῇ πόλει περιστάντα κίνδυ_νον D. 18.188. (4) NADP: ἕτοιμον ἔχει δύναμιν τὴν . . . καταδουλωσουένην ἄπαντας he has in readiness a force to enslave all D. 8.46.


a. Especially after verbal substantives denoting an action or a state an attributive prepositional phrase is added without the article being repeated: τὴν μεγάλην στρατεία_ν Ἀθηναίων καὶ τῶν ξυμμάχων ἐς Αἴγυπτον the great expedition of the Athenians and their allies to Egypt T. 1.110.

b. A word defining a substantivized participle, adjective, or infinitive may

-- 295 --

be placed before the article for emphasis: καὶ ταῦτα τοὺς εἰδότας καλοῦμεν and we will summon those who have knowledge of this D. 57.65, τούτων τοῖς ἐναντίοις with the opposite of these T. 7.75.

Previous SubSect

Next SubSect

Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Powered by PhiloLogic