]. THE ARTICLE WITH PROPER NAMES
Names of persons and places are individual and therefore omit the article unless previously mentioned ( cross1120 b) or specially marked as well known: -- 290 --
T. 1.1, τοὺς στρατιώτα_ς αὐτῶν, τοὺς παρὰ Κλέαρχον ἀπελθόντας, εἴα_ Κῦρος τὸν Κλέαρχον ἔχειν their soldiers who seceded to Clearchus, Cyrus allowed Clearchus to retain X. A. 1.4.7, ὁ Σόλων D. 20.90, οἱ Ἡρα_κλέες the Heracleses P. Th. 169b.
Θουκυ_δίδης Ἀθηναῖος Thucydides an Athenian
Names of deities omit the article, except when emphatic (νὴ τὸν Δία by Zeus) or when definite cults are referred to: τὸ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἕδος the sanctuary of Athena (at Athens) I. 15.2. Names of festivals vary in prose writers (no article in inscriptions): Παναθήναια the Panathenaea (but
L. 21.4). Names of shrines have the article.
Παναθηναίοις τοῖς μι_κροῖς at the Lesser Panathenaea
Names of nations may omit the article, but οἱ Ἕλληνες is usual when opposed to οἱ βάρβαροι the barbarians. When nations are opposed, the article is usually absent: ὁ πόλεμος Ἀθηναίων καὶ Πελοποννησίων T. 2.1 (but ὁ πόλεμος τῶν Πελοποννησίων καὶ Ἀθηναίων 1. 1). The name of a nation without the article denotes the entire people. Names of families may omit the article: Ἀσκληπιάδαι P. R. 406a.
Continents: ἡ Εὐρώπη Europe, ἡ Ἀσία_ Asia. Other names of countries, except those originally adjectives (as ἡ Ἀττική Attica), omit the article (Λιβύη Libya). γῆ and χώρα_ may be added only to such names as are treated as adjectives: ἡ Βοιωτία_ (γῆ) Boeotia. The names of countries standing in the genitive of the divided whole ( cross1311) usually omit the article only when the genitive precedes the governing noun:
T. 1.12. The article is generally used with names of mountains and rivers; but is often omitted with names of islands, seas (but ὁ Πόντος the Pontus), and winds. Names of cities usually omit the article. Names of cities, rivers, and mountains often add πόλις, ποταμός, ὄρος ( cross1142 c). The article is omitted with proper names joined with αὐτός used predicatively ( cross1206 b):
Σικελία_ς τὸ πλεῖστον the most of Sicily
αὐτοὺς Ἀθηναίους the Athenians themselves
Several appellatives, treated like proper names, may omit the article: βασιλεύς the king of Persia (ὁ βασιλεύς is anaphoric ( cross1120 b) or refers expressly to a definite person). Titles of official persons: πρυτάνεις the Prytans, στρατηγοί the Generals. Names of relationship, etc.: πατήρ father, ἀνήρ husband, γυνή wife (but the article is needed when a definite individual is spoken of). Thus:
And. 1.48. So also πατρίς fatherland.
ἦκον δὲ τῷ μὲν μήτηρ, τῷ δὲ γυνὴ καὶ παῖδες to one there came his mother, to another his wife and children
Similarly in the case of words forming a class by themselves, and some others used definitely: ἥλιος sun, οὐρανός heaven, ὧραι seasons, κεραυνός thunder, θάνατος death; ἄστυ, πόλις city, ἀκρόπολις citadel, ἀγορά_ market-place, τεῖχος city-wall, πρυτανεῖον prytaneum, νῆσος island (all used of definite places), θάλαττα sea as opposed to the mainland, but ἡ θάλαττα of a definite sea; similarly γῆ earth, land.
When the name of a person or place is defined by an appositive ( cross916) or attributive, the following distinctions are to be noted:
a. Persons: Περδίκκα_ς Ἀλεξάνδρου Perdiccas, son of Alexander T. 2.99: the official designation merely stating the parentage. Δημοσθένης ὁ Ἀλκισθένους (the popular designation) distinguishes Demosthenes, the son of Alcisthenes (T. 3.91) from other persons named Demosthenes. (Similarly with names of nations.)
b. Deities: the article is used with the name and with the epithet or (less often) with neither: -- 291 --
T. 5.31, Διὶ ἐλευθερίῳ to Zeus guardian of freedom 2. 71.
τῷ Διὶ τῷ Ὀλυμπίῳ to Olympian Zeus
c. Geographical Names are usually treated as attributives, as
X. A. 1.4.11,
ὁ Εὐφρά_της ποταμός the river Euphrates
T. 4.103. In a very few cases (six times in Thuc.) ὁ is omitted with the name of a river when ποταμός is inserted; but Hdt. often omits ὁ. With the names of mountains the order is
ἡ Βόλβη λίμνη lake Bolbe
Hdt. 7.129 when the gender agrees, but otherwise
τὸ Πήλιον ὄρος Mt. Pelion
T. 3.85 (rarely as
ἐς τὸ ὄρος τὴν Ἰστώνην to Mt. Istone
T. 3.116). With names of islands, towns, etc., the order varies:
ὑπὸ τῇ Αἴτνῃ τῷ ὄρει at the foot of Mt. Aetna
X. A. 7.8.21;
τὸ Παρθένιον πόλισμα the town of Parthenium
ἡ Ψυττάλεια νῆσος the island of Psyttalea
Τραγία_ ἡ νῆσος the island of Tragia
T. 2.93; τὸ φρούριον τὸ Λάβδαλον fort Labdalon 7. 3. The city of Mende would be Μένδη πόλις, ἡ Μένδη ἡ πόλις, Μένδη ἡ πόλις.
τοῦ Πειραιῶς τοῦ λιμένος of the harbour of Peiraeus