The particular article denotes individual persons or things as distinguished from others of the same kind. Thus, μαίνεται ἅ_νθρωπος
Special uses of the particular article. The particular article defines
a. Objects well known: ὁ τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφώτατος Σόλων
b Objects already mentioned or in the mind of the speaker or writer (the anaphoric article): εἶπον ὅτι τάλαντον ἀργυρίου ἕτοιμος εἴην δοῦναι . . . ὁ δὲ λαβὼν τὸ τάλαντον κ.τ.λ.
c. Objects specially present to the senses or mind (the deictic article):
λαβε τὸ βιβλίον
βουλόμενος τὴν μάχην ποιῆσαι
N.—The foregoing (a - c) uses recall the old demonstrative force of the article. Words that ordinarily have no article may receive the article when this older force is present.
d. Objects particularized by an attributive or by a following description:
ὁ δῆμος ὁ Ἀθηναίων
λέγε τὴν ἐπιστολήν, ἣν ἔπεμψεν
e. Objects marked as
f. Objects representative of their class (the distributive article, which resembles the generic use; often translated by a,
ὑπισχνεῖται δώσειν τρία ἡμιδα_ρεικὰ τοῦ μηνὸς τῷ στρατιώτῃ
The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor.
Κῦρος καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος τὸν θώρα_κα ἐνέδυ_
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].