Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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The demonstrative force of ὁ, ἡ, τό survives chiefly in connection with particles (μέν, δέ, γέ, τοί; and with καί preceding ).


is a demonstrative commonly before μέν, δέ, and especially in contrasted expressions: ὁ μέν . . . ὁ δέ the one, this . . . the other, that, as in οἱ μὲν ἐπορεύοντο, οἱ δ' εἵποντο the one party proceeded, the other followed X. A. 3.4.16.


The reference may be indefinite; in which case τὶς is often added: τοὺς μὲν ἀπέκτεινε, τοὺς δ' ἐξέβαλεν some he put to death, and others he expelled X. A. 1.1.7, οἱ μέν τινες ἀπέθνῃσκον, οἱ δ' ἔφευγον some were killed, but others escaped C. 3. 2. 10.

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With prepositions the order is usually inverted: ἐκ μὲν τῶν, εἰς δὲ τά ( cross1663 a).


In late writers (but in Demosthenes) the relative is used as in 1107: πόλεις, ἃ_ς μὲν ἀναιρῶν, εἰς ἃ_ς δὲ τοὺς φυγάδας κατάγων destroying some cities, into others bringing back their exiles D. 18.71 (the first instance).


Note the adverbial expressions: τὸ (τὰ) μέν . . . τὸ (τὰ) δέ on the one hand . . . on the other hand, partly . . . partly (so also τοῦτο μέν . . . τοῦτο δέ cross1256); τὸ δέ τι partly, τῇ μέν . . . τῇ δέ in this way . . . in that way, τὸ δέ whereas ( cross1112), τῷ τοι therefore.


ὁ δέ, ἡ δέ, τὸ δέ (without a preceding μέν clause) often mean but (or and) he, she, this. In the nominative the person referred to is usually different from the subject of the main verb: Κῦρος δίδωσιν αὐτῷ μυ_ρίους δα_ρεικούς· ὁ δὲ λαβὼν τὸ χρυ_σίον κ.τ.λ. Cyrus gives him (Clearchus) 10,000 darics; and he taking the money, etc. X. A. 1.1.9, ταῦτα ἀπαγγέλλουσι τοῖς στρατιώταις· τοῖς δὲ ὑποψία_ ἦν ὅτι ἄγοι πρὸς βασιλέα_ they report this to the soldiers; and they had a suspicion that he was leading (them) against the king X. A. 1.3.21, τὸ δ' οὐκ ἔστι τοιοῦτον whereas this is not so P. A. 37a.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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