Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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3008

There are very many forms of anacoluthon, e.g.

a. Many cases are due to the fact that a writer conforms his construction, not to the words which he has just used, but to another way in which the antecedent thought might have been expressed: the construction πρὸς τὸ νοούμενον (or σημαινόμενον) according to what is thought. Cp. cross2148 and X. H. 2.2.3, S. O. T. 353, E. Hec. 970.

b. Some cases are due to changes in the subject, as T. 1.18. 2.

c. Many cases occur in connection with the use of a participle ( cross2147, cross2148).

d. Coördinate clauses connected by τὲ . . . καί, καὶ . . . καί, οὔτε . . . οὔτε, ἢ . . . ἤ often show anacoluthon, especially when a finite verb takes the place of a participle. Cp. cross2147 c, and T. 5.61. 4, 6. 32. 3, 7. 47. 1-2.

e. The nominative “in suspense” may stand at the head of a sentence instead of another case required by the following construction. This involves a redundant pronoun. Thus, Πρόξενος δὲ καὶ Μένων, ἐπείπερ εἰσὶν ὑ_μέτεροι εὐεργέται . . . πέμψατε αὐτοὺς δεῦρο (for Πρόξενον καὶ Μένωνα . . . πέμψατε δεῦρο) X. A. 2.5.41. Cp. “The prince that feeds great natures, they will slay him:” Ben Jonson.

f. The accusative often stands absolutely when at the head of a sentence. Thus, ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τι_μά_ς γε . . ., τῶν μὲν μεθέξει καὶ γεύσεται ἑκών, ἃ_ς ἂν ἡγῆται ἀμείνω αὑτὸν ποιήσειν, ἃ_ς δ' . . . φεύξεται but furthermore as regards honours, those he will partake of and be glad to taste which he thinks will make him a

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better man, but others he will shun P. R. 591e, Ἕλληνας τοὺς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ οἰκοῦντας οὐδέν πω σαφὲς λέγεται εἰ ἕπονται (for λέγουσιν εἰ ἕπονται or λέγεται ἕπεσθαι) as to the Greeks who dwell in Asia there is as yet no certain intelligence whether they are to accompany the expedition X. C. 2.1.5.

g. A main clause may take the construction of a parenthetical clause (T. 4.93. 2). Here belongs the attraction into the relative clause of a verb that should have been principal. So after ὡς ἤκουσα, ὡς οἶμαι, ὡς λέγουσι, etc. Thus, τόδε γε μήν, ὡς οἶμαι, περὶ αὐτοῦ ἀναγκαιότατον εἶναι (for ἐστὶ) λέγειν this indeed is, as I think, most necessary to state about it P. Phil. 20d. Often in Hdt., as ὡς δ' ἐγὼ ἤκουσα . . . εἶναι αὐτὸν Ἰδανθύρσου . . . πάτρων but as I have heard he was the uncle of Idanthyrsus on the father's side 4. 76. A construction may be introduced by ὅτι or ὡς and then pass to the infinitive, or the infinitive may precede and a finite verb follow ( cross2628).

h. After a subordinate clause with parentheses the main clause sometimes follows in the form of an independent sentence (P. A. 28c, cp. cross36 a).

i. An infinitive may resume the idea set forth by the principal verb; as τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τάττοντος, ὡς ἐγὼ ᾠήθην τε καὶ ὑπέλαβον, φιλοσοφοῦντά με δεῖν ζῆν κτλ. whereas when God orders me, as I think and believe, to pass my life in the pursuit of wisdom, etc. P. A. 28e. Cp. X. H. 7.4.35.

j. Anacoluthon is sometimes due to the desire to maintain similarity of form between contrasted expressions; as τοὺς μὲν γὰρ ἱπποκενταύρους οἶμαι ἔγωγε πολλοῖς μὲν ἀπορεῖν τῶν ἀνθρώποις ηὑρημένων ἀγαθῶν ὅπως δεῖ χρῆσθαι, πολλοῖς δὲ τῶν ἵπποις πεφυ_κότων ἡδέων πῶς αὐτῶν χρὴ ἀπολαύειν for I think that the horse-centaurs were at a loss how to make use of many conveniences devised for men and how to enjoy many of the pleasures natural to horses X. C. 4.3.19. Here πολλοῖς δέ is used as if it were to be governed by χρῆσθαι, instead of which αὐτῶν ἀπολαύειν is substituted.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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