Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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3018

There are many forms of brachylogy; for example:

a. One verbal form must often be supplied from another; e.g. a passive from an active, an infinitive from a finite verb, a participle from an infinitive. Thus, τὴν τῶν πέλας δῃοῦν μᾶλλον ἢ τὴν ἑαυτῶν ὁρᾶν (δῃουμένην) rather to ravage the territory of their neighbours than to see their own (being ravaged) T. 2.11, ταῦτα ἐγώ σοι οὐ πείθομαι . . ., οἶμαι δὲ οὐδὲ ἄλλον ἀνθρώπων οὐδένα (πείθεσθαί σοι) of this I am not persuaded by you and I do not believe that any other human being is either P. A. 25e, οὔτε πάσχοντες κακὸν οὐδὲν οὔτε μέλλοντες (πάσχειν) neither suffering, nor being likely (to suffer), any evil I. 12.103, ἀνεχώρησαν δὲ καὶ οἱ Αθηναῖοι . . . , ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἐκείνους εἶδον (ἀναχωρήσαντας) and the Athenians too withdrew when they saw that they (the Lacedaemonians) had done so T. 3.16.

b. A verb must often be supplied from a coördinate or subordinate clause either preceding or following. Thus, ἔγειρε καὶ σὺ τήνδ', ἐγὼ δὲ σέ do you wake her, as I (wake) you A. Eum. 140, ἐὰ_ν δὲ αὐτόχειρ μὲν μή (), βουλεύσῃ δὲ θάνατόν τις ἄλλος ἑτέρῳ if a person shall not kill with his own hand, but if some one shall suggest murder to another P. L. 872a; φίλους νομίζουσ' οὕσπερ ἂν πόσις σέθεν (νομίζῃ) regarding as friends even those whom thy husband (so regards) E. Med. 1153. A verb is rarely supplied from the subordinate to the main construction.

c. In clauses with δεῖ, χρή etc.: ἵνα φαίνησθε ἀμύ_νοντες οἷς δεῖ (ἀμύ_νειν) that you may seem to assist those you ought (to assist) T. 3.13. When a form of τυγχάνω stands in the subordinate clause; ἀπέπλευσαν ὡς ἕκαστοι ἔτυχον (ἀποπλέοντες) they sailed away as each best could T. 4.25. In conditional clauses when the protasis indicates that the assertion made in the apodosis holds true of a person or a thing more than of any other person or thing (εἴπερ τις καὶ ἄλλος, εἴπερ που, εἴπερ ποτέ, ὥς τις καὶ ἄλλος, etc.); as συμφέρει δ' ὑ_μῖν, εἴπερ τῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ, τὸ νι_κᾶν victory is of advantage to you, if it (is of advantage) to any X. C. 3.3.42. Hence εἴ τις (που, ποθεν) is almost = τὶς, etc. (T. 7.21. 5).

d. Compound verbs (especially those compounded with μετά and ἐξ) are often so used that the force both of the compound and of the simple verb is requisite to the meaning. Thus, (οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι) μετέγνωσαν Κερκυ_ραίοις ξυμμαχία_ν μὴ ποιήσασθαι the Athenians changed their minds and decided not to make an alliance with the Corcyraeans T. 1.44.

e. A compound verb on its second occurrence often omits the preposition (rarely vice versa); as ἀπεργάζηται . . . εἰργάζετο P. Ph. 104d. Euripides is

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fond of such collocations as ὑπάκουσον ἄκουσον Alc. 400. Cp. the difference in metrical value of repeated words in Shakespeare, as “These víolént desires have víolent ends.”

N.—In καὶ ξυμμετίσχω καὶ φέρω τῆς αἰτία_ς I share and bear alike the guilt (S. Ant. 537) φέρω, though capable of taking the partitive genitive, is influenced by ξυμμετίσχω and has the force of ξυμφέρω.

f. From a following verb of special meaning a verb of more general meaning, such as ποιεῖν, γίγνεσθαι, εἶναι, must be supplied with the phrases οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἤ, ἄλλο τι ἤ, τί ἄλλο ἤ. Examples in 946, 2652, 2778.

g. A verb of saying or thinking must often be supplied from a foregoing verb of exhorting, commanding, announcing, or from any other verb that implies saying or thinking. Thus, Κριτόβουλος καὶ Ἀπολλόδωρος κελεύουσί με τριά_κοντα μνῶν τι_μήσασθαι, αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐγγυᾶσθαι Critobulus and Apollodorus urge me to set a penalty of thirty minae, and (say) that they themselves are sureties P. A. 38b.

h. When two verbs taking the same or different cases have an object in common, that object is expressed only once, and usually is dependent on the nearer verb. See cross1634, cross1635.

i. A substantive or a verb is often to be supplied from a substantive or a verb related in meaning: ναυμαχήσαντας μίαν (ναυμαχία_ν) having fought one (sea-fight) Ar. Ran. 693, ἡ μὲν ἔπειτα εἰς ἅλα ἆλτο . . ., Ζεὺς δὲ ἑὸν πρὸς δῶμα (ἔβη) she then sprang into the sea, but Zeus (went) to his abode A 532.

j. The subject of a sentence is often taken from a preceding object or from some other preceding noun in an oblique case without a pronoun of reference to aid the transition. Thus, ἐξεφόβησαν μὲν τοὺς πολλοὺς οὐκ εἰδότας τὰ πρα_σσόμενα, καὶ ἔφευγον (οἱ πολλοί) they frightened away most of the citizens, who were in ignorance of the plot and began to fly T. 8.44. Cp. cross943.

k. In general an object is frequently omitted when it can readily be supplied from the context. Thus, ἐγχεῖν (τὸν οἶνον) ἐκέλενε he gave orders to pour in (the wine) X. A. 4.3.13. An unemphatic pronoun in an oblique case is often omitted when it can be supplied from a preceding noun. Cp. cross1214.

l. A dependent noun must often be supplied, in a different construction, from one coördinate clause to another. Thus, ὅρκους ἔλαβον καὶ ἔδοσαν παρὰ Φαρναβάζου they received oaths from Pharnabazus and gave him theirs X. H. 1.3.9. So in contrasts where one member is to be supplied from the other, as οὐκ ἐκεῖνος (ἐκείνην), ἀλλ' ἐκείνη κεῖνον ἐνθάδ' ἤγαγεν he did not bring (her) here, but she brought him E. Or. 742.

m. From a preceding word its opposite must often be supplied, especially an affirmative after a negative. Thus, ἀμελήσα_ς ὧνπερ οἱ πολλοὶ (ἐπιμελοῦνται) neglecting the very things which most people (care for) P. A. 36b. This laxity of expression is especially frequent in the case of ἕκαστος, τὶς, or πάντες, to be supplied after οὐδείς (μηδείς), as μηδεὶς τὴν ὑπερβολὴν θαυμάσῃ, ἀλλὰ μετ' εὐνοία_ς δ λέγω θεωρησάτω let no one wonder at the extravagance of my statement, but let (every one) consider kindly what I say D. 18.199. Cp. “No person held to service or labor in one state . . ., escaping into another, shall . . . be discharged from said service or labor, but shall be delivered up, etc.”: U. S. Constitution.

n. The same word though placed only once may stand in two different constructions; as αἰνέω δὲ καὶ τόνδε (νόμον) . . . μήτε τῶν ἄλλων Περσέων μηδένα τῶν

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ἑωυτοῦ οἰκετέων . . . ἀνήκεστον πάθος ἔρδειν and I approve also this custom that no one of the other Persians shall do irremediable hurt to any one of his own servants Hdt. 1.137. Here μηδένα is both subject and object of ἔρδειν.

o. An assertion may be made concerning an action or a thing when the absence of that action or thing is meant (res pro rei defectu). Thus, εἴ τ' ἄρ' ὁγ' εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται whether then he blames us on account of an (unfulfilled) vow A 65, ἐν ᾗ καὶ περὶ χρημάτων καὶ περὶ ἀτι_μία_ς ἄνθρωποι κινδυ_νεύουσιν on which charge men run the risk both of (loss of) money and civil degradation D. 29.16. So δύναμις powerlessness, φυλακή neglect of the watch, μελέτημα lack of liberal exercise.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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