Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Relative ὡς as an Adverb 2990

In comparative clauses, often correlated with οὕτως. Thus, πιστὸς ἦν, ὡς ὑ_μεῖς ἐπίστασθε I was faithful, as you know X. A. 3.3.2, ἐκέλευσε τοὺς Ἕλληνας, ὡς νόμος αὐτοῖς εἰς μάχην, οὕτω ταχθῆναι he ordered the Greeks (thus) to be stationed as was their custom for battle 1. 2. 15. Cp. cross2462 ff. In similes and comparisons, 2481 ff.


ὡς is rarely used for after comparatives; as μή μου προκήδου μᾶσσον ὡς ἐμοὶ γλυκύ care not for me further than I wish A. Pr. 629. Cp. cross1071.


In adverbial clauses ὡς is often used parenthetically; as ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ as it seems to me. Instead of ὡς δοκεῖ, ὡς ἔοικε the personal construction is often preferred; as ἀπέπλευσαν, ὡς μὲν τοῖς πλείστοις ἐδόκουν, φιλοτι_μηθέντες they sailed away out of jealousy, as it seemed to most people X. A. 1.4.7.


ὡς restrictive for (cp. ut), involving the judgment of the observer, occurs often in elliptical phrases; as (Βρα_σίδα_ς) ἦν οὐδὲ ἀδύνατος, ὡς Λακεδαιμόνιος, εἰπεῖν Brasidas was, for a Lacedaemonian, not a bad speaker either T. 4.84, ταῦτα ἀκούσα_ς Ξέρξης ὡς ἐκ κακῶν ἐχάρη on hearing this Xerxes rejoiced as much as could be expected considering his misfortunes Hdt. 8.101. On ὡς restrictive with the dative, cp. cross1495 a, cross1497; with the absolute infinitive, 2012.


ὡς is often used to heighten a superlative ( cross1086).


With numerals and words indicating degree ὡς means about, nearly, not far from; as ὁπλί_τα_ς ἔχων ὡς πεντακοσίους having about five hundred hoplites X. A. 1.2.3, ὡς ἐπὶ πολύ for the most part P. R. 377b (lit. about over the great (er) part).

-- 671 --


ὡς often indicates the thought or the assertion of the subject of the principal verb or of some other person prominent in the sentence. Here ὡς expresses a real intention or an avowed plea. So often with participles ( cross2086); and also with the prepositions εἰς, ἐπί, πρός; as ἀπέπλεον . . . ἐκ τῆς Σικελία_ς ὡς ἐς τὰ_ς Ἀθήνα_ς they sailed away from Sicily as though bound for Athens T. 6.61.


ὡς ἕκαστος means each for himself; as ἀπέπλευσαν ἐξ Ἑλλησπόντου ὡς ἕκαστοι (ἀπέπλευσαν) κατὰ πόλεις they sailed away from the Hellespont each to his own State T. 1.89.


ὡς exclamatory ( cross2682) may be the relative adverb ὡς how, the relative clause originally being used in explanation of an exclamation. Exclamatory ὡς has also been explained as ὡς demonstrative (so).


On ὡς in wishes, see cross1815.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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