Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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τοί 2984

τοί (postpositive and enclitic) in truth, surely, doubtless, mark you, be assured, you (must) know, was originally the dative of feeling ( cross1486) of σύ.

a. This τοί (Sanskrit ), found in all dialects, is to be distinguished from Doric τοί ( = σοί) from τνοι (Skt. tvē´). τοί may thus occur in the same sentence with σοί; as τοιαῦτά τοί σοι . . . λέγω S. fr. 25.

2985

τοί is often used in statements of a general truth and in expressions of personal conviction (sometimes with a tone of hesitation); in remarks of a confidential nature; to introduce an explanation; and in general where the special attention of the person addressed is desired. τοί often gives an easy and familiar tone to a reply. Thus, τῶν τοι ματαίων ἀνδράσιν φρονημάτων ἡ γλῶσσ' ἀληθὴς γίγνεται κατήγορος true it is that of men's vain conceits their tongue is the true accuser A. Sept. 438, ἀεί τοι ὁ Κέβης λόγους τινὰς ἀνερευνᾷ for Cebes, you know, is always investigating some speculation or other P. Ph. 63a.

a. τοί may emphasize particular words, as ἐγώ τοι, ἐμοί τοι, σέ τοι; and other words not pronouns.

2986

τοί is frequently used after other particles, as ἀλλά, γάρ, γέ, δή (and γέ τοι δή, cp. δή τοι . . . γε), ἐπεί because, μή, οὐ (οὔτοι). On ἤτοι, see cross2858; on καίτοι, 2893; on μέντοι, 2917.

2987

The inferential conjunctions τοιγάρ, τοιγαροῦν, τοιγάρτοι, τοίνυν contain τοί, the locative of the demonstrative τό, which case had the meaning of τῷ (τῶ) therefore, on this account, so lit. by that, therein. (This τῷ is chiefly Epic, and stands at the beginning of the verse. Cp. τό therefore Γ 176, S. Ph. 142.)

τοιγάρ (prepositive; Ionic and poetic) therefore, wherefore, so then, that is surely the reason why (often to announce a purpose).

τοιγαροῦν, τοιγάρτοι (both prepositive) are more emphatic than τοιγάρ. The final syllable of τοιγάρτοι is the τοί of 2984.

τοίνυν (postpositive and post-Homeric; -νυν cross2927) is transitional (now then, further) or inferential (therefore, accordingly; less emphatic than τοιγάρ). τοίνυν is common when a speaker refers to something present in his mind, when

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he continues or resumes what he has been saying, and when he passes to a new aspect of a subject. It is often found with imperatives (σκόπει τοίνυν P. Cr. 51c).

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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