Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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τέ 2967

τέ and (postpositive, and enclitic as -que) is generally used with a correlative conjunction.


τέ alone sometimes in prose links whole clauses or sentences which serve to explain, amplify, supplement, or to denote a consequence of, what precedes (and thus, and therefore, and as a result). Thus, ὁ δ' ἐχαλέπαινεν . . ., ἐκέλευσέ τ' αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ μέσου ἐξίστασθαι but he was angry and (therefore) ordered him to get out of the way X. A. 1.5.14. Cp. cross2978.

a. This use of τέ (τέ consequential) is quite common in Herodotus and Thucydides, rather rare in Xenophon, and infrequent in other prose writers. It occurs also in poetry.

N.—In poetry τέ alone (cp. -que) often connects single parallel nouns and pronouns so that the two connected ideas form a whole; as σκῆπτρον τι_μά_ς τε sceptre and prerogatives A. Pr. 171. In prose, participles and infinitives are occasionally linked by τέ; as καθαρωτέρα_ οὖσα πρεπόντως τε μᾶλλον ἠμφιεσμένη being fairer and dressed more becomingly X. O. 10.12.

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τέ (or καί) meaning both may be followed by asyndeton (S. Ant. 296).


Homer often, and Herodotus sometimes, adds τέ to relative pronouns and conjunctions introducing subordinate clauses, which are usually postpositive. So after ὅς, ὅσος, οἷος, ὡς, ὅτε, ἐπεί, ἔνθα, ὅθι, etc. Thus, φίληθεν ἐκ Διός, ὅς τε θεοῖσι . . . ἀνάσσει they were loved by Zeus, who rules over the gods B 669. This untranslatable τέ is probably connective (not indefinite), and belongs to the whole clause. It has the effect of showing that its clause corresponds in some way to the preceding clause. ὅς τε is found in lyric poetry and in the lyric parts of tragedy (rarely in dialogue parts). ὥστε, οἷός τε became common.


This connective force is also seen when τέ stands in the principal clause, sometimes both in the principal and in the subordinate clause, e.g. ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται, μάλα τ' ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ whosoever obeys the gods, him especially they hear A 218, ὅππῃ τ' ἰ_θύ_σῃ, τῇ τ' εἴκουσι στίχες ἀνδρῶν wheresoever he rushes, there the ranks of men give way M 48.


Homer has τέ after the coördinating conjunctions καί, δέ, οὐδέ, ἀλλά, ἤ; after ἦ, μέν, πέρ, γάρ, and before ἄρα in questions.


τὲ . . . τέ usually serves to connect clauses, less frequently single words. In English and often suffices, but as . . . so is often in place. τὲ . . . τέ is more common in poetry than in prose, but in prose more common than τέ standing alone. Thus, πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε father of men and gods A 544, ἐμοί τε γὰρ πολέμιοι Ἀσσύριοι, σοί τε νῦν ἐχθί_ονές εἰσιν ἢ ἐμοί for the Assyrians are enemies to me, and they are now more hostile to you than to me X. C. 4.5.23, περὶ ὧν εἰδέναι τε κάλλιστον μὴ εἰδέναι τε αἴσχιστον knowledge of which is most excellent and ignorance most disgraceful P. G. 472c.

a. One clause may be negative, the other affirmative (T. 2.22); but we usually have οὔτε instead of τὲ οὐ.


τὲ καί or τὲ . . . καί often serves to unite complements, both similars and opposites. τὲ . . . καί is not used when one clause is subordinate to another. The two words or clauses thus united may show a contrast, or the second may be stronger than the first. τέ is commonly separated from καί by one or more words. τὲ . . . καί is weaker than καὶ . . . καί, and will not easily bear the translation both . . . and. It is rare in colloquial Attic. Thus, ἄρχειν τε καὶ ἄρχεσθαι to rule and be ruled X. A. 1.9.4, κάλλιστόν τε καὶ ἄριστον fairest and best 2. 1. 9, τό τ' ἄρχειν καὶ τὸ δουλεύειν to rule and to be a slave A. Pr. 927, βίᾳ τε κοὐχ ἑκών by force and not willingly S. O. C. 935, γυμνάσαι . . . ἑαυτόν τε καὶ τοὺς ἵππους to exercise himself and his horses X. A. 1.2.7. Clauses dissimilar in form may be linked by τὲ . . . καί; as ἀπεκρί_νατο διὰ βραχέων τε καὶ αὐτὰ τὰ ἐρωτώμενα he answered briefly and only the questions put to him P. Pr. 336a.


τὲ . . . καί is often used of actions coincident in time, or of actions standing in a causal relation to each other; as ἡμέρα_ τε σχεδὸν ὑπέφαινε καὶ εἰς τὸ μέσον ἧκον οἱ ἄρχοντες day was just breaking and (= when) the officers came into the centre of the camp X. A. 3.3.1 (temporal parataxis; cp. cross2169).


τὲ . . . καί is sometimes used of alternatives (for εἴτε . . . εἴτε). Thus, θεοῦ τε γὰρ θέλοντος . . . καὶ μὴ θέλοντος whether God wills or not A. Sept. 427. Here καὶ . . . καί is more common ( cross2877).

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We find τὲ . . . καὶ . . . τέ, τὲ . . . καὶ . . . τὲ . . . τέ . . . τἔ, τὲ . . . τὲ . . . καί, τὲ . . . τὲ . . . καὶ . . . τέ, τὲ . . . καὶ . . . καὶ . . . τέ. But in prose τέ before and after καί is rare.


When τέ follows τὲ . . . καί, τέ does not point back to καί, but denotes an addition to the preceding member (and besides). Thus, τείχη τε περιελόντες καὶ ναῦς παραδόντες φόρον τε ταξάμενοι both destroying their walls and surrendering their ships and besides assessing tribute on themselves T. 1.108. Cp. cross2968.


καί τε is Epic; elsewhere the καί of καὶ . . . τε belongs to the whole clause (A. Ch. 252).


ἄλλως τε καί both in other ways and especially, on other grounds and particularly, or simply especially. This combination usually stands before conditional clauses (or clauses with a conditional participle), causal, and temporal clauses. Thus, χαλεπὸν οἶμαι διαβαίνειν ἄλλως τε καὶ πολεμίων πολλῶν ἔμπροσθεν ὄντων I think it hard to cross,especially when the enemy faces us in full force X. A. 5.6.9, πάντων . . . ἀποστερεῖσθαι λυ_πηρόν ἐστι . . . , ἄλλως τε κἂ_ν ὑπ' ἐχθροῦ τῳ τοῦτο συμβαίνῃ it is grievous to be deprived of anything, especially if this happens to any one at the hands of a personal enemy D. 18.5. Cp. τά τ' ἄλλα ἐτἱ_μησε καὶ μυ_ρίους ἔδωκε δα_ρεικούς he both honoured me in other ways and gave me ten thousand darics X. A. 1.3.3.


τὲ . . . δέ is used when a writer begins as if he were going simply to add the second member (both . . . and), but instead contrasts it with the first. This combination of copulative and adversative particles is often rendered less harsh by the form of the δέ clause and by other reasons. (a) The δέ clause contains a καί; as ἅμα (ἔπειτα, ἔτι, πολλαχοῦ, ὡσαύτως) δὲ καί; e.g. ἔν τε τῇ τῶν ἐπῶν ποιήσει πολλαχοῦ δὲ καὶ ἄλλοθι, lit. both in the construction of epic poetry but also in many other cases P. R. 394c. (b) The second clause contains a formula with δέ but not with καί; as ἔτι δέ, τί δέ, τὸ δὲ κεφάλαιον, μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα. Thus, πρότερόν τε . . . νῦν δέ (both) formerly . . . but now X. H. 7.1.24. Cp. P. L. 664b, 947 a, 967 d. (c) After a considerable interval occasioned by the extension of the τέ clause, it is natural to resume with δέ. So T. 6.83. 1, X. A. 7.8.11, X. C. 2.1.22, L. 2.17.


Rare combinations are, e.g.:

. . . τέ instead of ἢ . . . ἤ. Thus, ἢ παῖδες νεαροὶ χῆραί τε γυναῖκες either young children and (= or) widowed women B 289. τὲ . . . is often emended in X. O. 20.12, P. Men. 95b.

τὲ . . . οὐδέ (μηδέ) with τέ instead of οὔτε (μήτε); as E. I. T. 697, P. Pol. 271e. τέ is not followed by οὔτε (μήτε).


Position of τέ.—τέ usually follows the word with which the sentence or sentence-part to be connected is most concerned. Apart from many irregularities there are certain exceptions to this rule which are commonly observed.

a. τέ may come between two words which go closely together, as between article (preposition, attributive genitive) and its noun. Thus, τό τε βαρβαρικὸν καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικόν the barbarian and the Greek force X. A. 1.2.1, εἶμι πρός τε λουτρὰ καὶ λειμῶνας I will go to the bathing places and the meadows S. Aj. 654 (for πρὸς λουτρά τε). But ἡ πόλις. τε καὶ ἡμεῖς οἱ νόμοι the State and we the laws P. Cr. 53a.

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b. τέ connecting an entire clause stands as near as possible to the beginning. Cp. X. A. 1.8.3.

c. τέ may stand after a word or expression which, though common to two members of a clause, is placed either at the beginning (especially after a preposition) or in the second member. Thus, ἅ τε δεῖ φίλια καὶ (ἃ δεῖ) πολέμια ἡμᾶς νομίζειν what we must consider as belonging to our friends and what to our enemies X. C. 5.2.21, ἔν τε τῷ θερμοτέρῳ καὶ ψυ_χροτέρῳ in the hotter and colder P. Phil. 24b, ἅπα_σι φίλον ἄνδρα τε σοφώτατον a man dear to all and most wise Ar. Vesp. 1277.

d. The freer position of τέ is often due to the fact that several words are taken as forming a single notion. Thus, ἡ καλλίστη δὴ πολι_τεία_ τε καὶ ὁ κάλλιστος ἀνήρ the very noblest constitution and the noblest man P. R. 562a.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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