Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Adverbial καί 2881

Adverbial καί also, even (Lat. etiam) influences single words or whole clauses. Adverbial καί stresses an important idea; usually the idea set forth in the word that follows, but sometimes also a preceding word when that word stands first in its clause. καί often serves to increase or diminish the force of particular words; sometimes it gives a tone of modesty.


With single words: a. κᾆτα then too, καὶ ἐγώ I on my part, σὸν ἢ κἀ_μὸν γένος offspring from thee or me either S. El. 965, βουλόμενος δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς λαμπρόν τι ποιῆσαι desirous of himself too doing something illustrious X. C. 5.4.15.

b. καὶ πρίν even before, καὶ ὀψέ late though it be, καὶ οὕτως even so, καὶ ἔτι καὶ νῦν and now too, and still even now, ὀκνῶ καὶ λέγειν I fear even to say it, πολλὴ μωρία_ καὶ τοῦ ἐπιχειρήματος the very attempt is utter folly P. Pr. 317a. On καί though with a participle, see cross2083.

c. Often with adverbs of intensity, as καὶ μάλα exceedingly, certainly, καὶ κάρτα very greatly, καὶ πάνυ absolutely. With comparatives and superlatives: καὶ μᾶλλον yet more, καὶ μωρότατον altogether the most foolish thing X. A. 3.2.22.


With a whole phrase or clause; as ἄμφω γὰρ αὐτὼ καὶ κατακτανεῖν νοεῖς; what, dost thou indeed intend to put them both to death? S. Ant. 770. Other examples in 2885-2887.


When καί stresses a verb in interrogative and conditional sentences it is often to be rendered by an emphatic auxiliary, often by at all. Thus, πολλάκις ἐσκεψάμην τί καὶ βούλεσθε I have often asked myself the question what you can want T. 6.38, τί καὶ χρὴ προσδοκᾶν; what on earth is one to expect? D. 4.46, τί γὰρ ἄν τις καὶ ποιοῖ ἄλλο; for what else could one do? P. Ph. 61e, εἰ δεῖ καὶ μῦθον λέγειν καλόν if it is well to tell a fable at all P. Ph. 110b. Cp. cross2872 a.

a. In affirmative independent clauses or sentences καί often has an emphasis which is difficult to render; as ὁ κίνδυ_νος νῦν δὴ καὶ δόξειεν ἂν δεινὸς εἶναι the danger must now indeed seem to be dreadful P. Ph. 107c.


Καί of Balanced Contrast.—In order to mark the connection of thought between antecedent and consequent, καί also, too, is often placed in the subordinate clause or in the main clause or in both.

a. Greek has thus the following modes of expression where a comparison is instituted between the parts of such bimembral sentences: “What I do, that you also do” (as in English) or “What I also ( = I on my part) do, that you do” or “What I also do, that you also do.” In the subordinate clause καί seems superfluous to English idiom.

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Καί of balanced contrast occurs frequently when the subordinate clause sets forth something corresponding to, or deducible from, the main clause; and when an antithesis is to be emphasized. It is found especially in relative, causal, and final clauses, and has the effect of putting such subordinate clauses on a plane with the main clause. A relative word often adds -περ or is followed by δή. Thus, τὰ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἔπρα_ττον, ὧνπερ ἕνεκεν καὶ Σωκράτει προσῆλθον they devoted themselves to those affairs of state on account of which they had in fact associated with Socrates X. M. 1.2.47, καὶ ἡμῖν ταὐτὰ δοκεῖ ἅπερ καὶ βασιλεῖ we hold exactly the same views as the king X. A. 2.1.22, ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἡ πόλις ἐσώθη . . . ἀξιῶ κἀ_μοὶ σωτηρία_ν γενέσθαι since the city has been saved I beg that safety be granted to me as well And. 1.143, ἔμαθον καὶ ἐγὼ ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι I (on my part) learned just as the rest did too P. Alc. 110d, τι_μωρία_ γὰρ οὐκ εὐτυχεῖ δικαίως ὅτι καὶ ἀδικεῖται for vengeance is not successful in accordance with justice, because it is taken upon a wrong T. 4.62.


In final clauses ἵνα καί is common, and sometimes, like Eng. just, serves to show that the fact answers to the expectation, or the effect to the cause (or vice versa). Thus, βούλει οὖν ἕπεσθαι ἵνα καὶ ἴδῃς τοὺς ὄντας αὐτόθι; do you wish to go along then just to see those who are there? P. Lys. 204a, ἄρξομαι δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἰ_α_τρικῆς λέγων ἵνα καὶ πρεσβεύωμεν τὴν τέχνην I will begin my speech with medicine in order that we may do honour to our art P. S. 186b.


Καί of balanced contrast appears also in coördinate clauses; as ἤδη γὰρ ἔγωγε καὶ Φιλολά_ου ἤκουσα . . . ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἄλλων τινῶν for I have ere now heard Philolaus . . . and ere now certain others besides him P. Ph. 61e, κατὰ πολλὰ μὲν καὶ ἄλλα, οὐχ ἥκιστα δὲ καὶ κατὰ ταῦτα as in many other respects also and not least (too) in this Aes. 1.108, ὑπὸ τῶν τἀ_νταῦθα διοικήσειν . . . καὶ πρὶν ὑπεσχημένων καὶ νῦν δὲ πρα_ττόντων by those who had promised to manage things there before and are now also doing them D. 7.5. The negative of καὶ . . . καὶ . . . δέ is οὐδὲ . . . οὐδὲ . . . δέ.

a. So in disjunctive phrases or clauses. Thus, εἴτε διὰ τὸ ἐπιβόημα εἴτε καὶ αὐτῷ ἄλλο τι . . . δόξαν either because of the exclamation or also because some other thought occurred to him T. 5.65; and so ἢ καί 2862. Cp. ἐζητεῖτο οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων ἢ καὶ ὑπ' ἐμοῦ he was not searched for by the others more than he was by me (on my part) Ant. 5.23.


Similarly the καί of εἴ τις καὶ ἄλλος is superfluous; as εἴπερ τι καὶ ἄλλο καὶ τοῦτο μαθητόν if any other thing is learnable, this is too X. S. 2. 6. But καί is usually omitted in the main clause; as ἐπίσταται δ' εἴ τις καὶ ἄλλος he knows as well as anybody else X. A. 1.4.15. So ὥς τις καὶ ἄλλος as also any other X. A. 2.6.8.


καὶ δὴ καί and especially, and in particular, and what is more, lays stress on a particular instance or application of a general statement. Here the second καί emphasizes the following word. καὶ δὴ καί is usually attached to a preceding τέ or καί. Thus, καὶ δὴ καὶ τότε πρῳαίτερον συνελέγημεν and on that especial occasion we came together somewhat earlier than usual P. Ph. 59d, ἐν ἄλλοις τε πολλοῖς καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐν τοῖς κάμνουσιν in the case of many others and particularly in that of the sick X. C. 1.6.21.


καὶ . . . δέ and . . . also, and . . . moreover. Here καί empha

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sizes the important intervening word or words, while δέ connects. Thus, καὶ σὲ δ' ἐν τούτοις λέγω and I count thee also among these A. Pr. 973. And also not is οὐδὲ . . . δέ. Hom. has καὶ δέ and further, and even (H cross113), not καὶ . . . δέ. καὶ . . . δέ (for τέ) is different (S. Ant. 432).

2892 καίπερ

καίπερ although is common with participles ( cross2083). As a conjunction (cp. quanquam) without a main clause it is very rare (P. S. 219c).


καίτοι (καὶ + τοί), not in Homer, means and yet, although, rarely and so then. Here τοί marks something worthy of note, which is commonly opposed to what precedes. καίτοι is used in making a correction (sometimes in the form of a question), in passing to a new idea, and in the statement of a conclusion. The common καίτοι . . . γε is stronger than καίτοι.

καίτοι οὐδὲν ὅτι οὐκ ἀληθὲς εἴρηκα ὧν προεῖπον and yet there is nothing untrue in what I said before P. Euth. 3c.

a. A sentence preceding καίτοι is often restated by a clause introduced by ἀλλά (ἀλλ' ὅμως), δέ, or νῦν δέ. Cp. P. Ph. 77a, Charm. 175 c, A. 40 b, G. 499 c.

b. καίτοι is rarely, if ever, used with the participle in classical Greek. It is best attested in P. R. 511d; emendation is resorted to in L. 31.34, Ar. Eccl. 159.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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