Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2837

Apodotic δέ.—The beginning of the principal clause (apodosis) of conditional and concessive sentences is often marked by δέ. Apodotic δέ is found also in the principal clause of causal, temporal, comparative, and relative sentences; and regularly gives greater emphasis to the main clause, which is thus distinctly set off against the subordinate clause. Apodotic δέ is very common in Homer and Herodotus, not rare in Attic poetry, but infrequent in Attic prose, where it is used especially after an emphatic personal or demonstrative pronoun or when a participle represents the antecedent clause. Thus, εἷος ὁ ταῦθ' ὥρμαινε . . ., ἦλθε δ' Ἀθήνη while he was revolving these things, then came Athene A 193, εἰ οὖν ἐγὼ μὴ γιγνώσκω μήτε τὰ ὅσια μήτε τὰ δίκαια, ὑ_μεῖς δὲ διδάξετέ με accordingly if I have no knowledge either of what is holy or what is just, do you then instruct me X. H. 4.1.33, ἐπεὶ τοίνυν οὐ δύναμαί σε πείθειν μὴ ἐκθεῖναι, σὺ δὲ ὧδε ποίησον since therefore I am not able to persuade you not to expose it, do you then do as follows Hdt. 1.112, ἐκάθευδον . . . ὥσπερ οἱ ὁπλῖται οὕτω δὲ καὶ οἱ πελτασταί as the hoplites so also the peltasts sleep X. C. 8.5.12, ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἀφικόμενοι μάχῃ ἐκράτησαν . . ., φαίνονται δ' οὐδ' ἐνταῦθα πά_σῃ τῇ δυνάμει χρησάμενοι but when on their arrival they had conquered in battle, not even then did they appear to have made use of their entire force T. 1.11, καί ποτε ὄντος πάγου . . . οὗτος δ' ἐν τούτοις ἐξῄει and once when there was a frost he went out in the midst of this P. S. 220b.

a. Apodotic δέ often resumes a δέ in the subordinate clause and carries on the opposition expressed by that clause; as εἰ δὲ βούλεσθε . . . ἐκλεξάμενοι ὅποι ἂν βούλησθε κατασχεῖν . . ., πλοῖα δ' ὑ_μῖν πάρεστιν but if you wish to select some place wherever you please and take possession of it, you have ships at command X. A. 5.6.20, ἃ δ' αἰσχύ_νην ἡμῖν φέρει . . ., ταῦτα δὲ κατὰ χώρα_ν μένει but the terms which cause us shame, these remain in force I. 4.176.

b. The use of apodotic δέ should not be regarded as a survival of original coördination.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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