Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2835

Adversative δέ often marks a silent contrast, as at the beginning of speeches (ἐγὼ δὲ οὕτω γιγνώσκω X. A. 4.6.10); in questions which imply opposition to something just said (S. O. C. 57); in answers (S. O. T. 379); in objections or corrections (S. Ant. 517); in τὸ δέ, τὰ δέ on the contrary, whereas really, where a true opinion is opposed to a false one; similarly in νῦν δέ but in fact, but as the case stands. When δέ is balanced by μέν ( cross2904) it is antithetical rather than adversative.

a. δέ after a pronoun following a vocative produces a pause; as Νιόβα_ σὲ δ' ἔγωγε νέμω θεόν ah Niobe, thee I regard as divine S. El. 150.

b. δέ instead of ἀλλά is rare except in the poets and Thucydides. Thus, προμηνύ_σῃς γε τοῦτο μηδενὶ τοὖργον, κρυφῆ δὲ κεῦθε make known this plan to no one, but hide it in secret S. Ant. 85, οὐκ ἐπὶ κακῷ, ἐπ' ἐλευθερώσει δὲ τῶν Ἑλλήνων παρελήλυθα I have come, not to harm, but to liberate, the Greeks T. 4.86. Sometimes οὐ μέν precedes when δέ is used like ἀλλά (T. 1.50).

c. But not is ἀλλ' ου' or οὐ μέντοι, not οὐ δέ, in order to avoid confusion with οὐδέ nor, not even. But οὐ and δέ may be separated, as οὐ βουλομένων δέ . . . προσχωρεῖν but since they did not wish to surrender X. H. 1.6.13.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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