Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2805

In questions, γάρ asks for confirmation of a preceding statement, or expresses assent or dissent; asks whether an act before mentioned was not reasonable; asks a question prompted by some form of emotion; and serves to indicate transition, etc.

a. In questions γάρ often marks surprise or indignation, and may frequently be translated by what, why, then, really, surely. Thus, ταυτὶ_ λέγεις σὺ στρατηγὸν πτωχὸς ὤν; ἐγὼ γάρ εἰμι πτωχός; do you, beggar that you are, address your general thus? what! I a beggar? Ar. Ach. 593, ἦ ζῇ γὰρ ἁ_νήρ; is the man really alive? S. El. 1221, οἴει γάρ σοι μαχεῖσθαι . . . τὸν ἀδελφόν; do you really think that your brother is going to fight? X. A. 1. 7. 9. So τίς γάρ; who then, why who?

b. Brief interrogative formulae asking for confirmation of a preceding statement are:

τί γάρ; what then, how when, how else? τί γάρ also serves as a formula of transition (now, well then, now what . . ., furthermore).

ἦ γάρ; is it not so? surely this is so? (cp. n'est ce pas). Often of surprise.

οὐ γάρ; is it not so? often in indignant questions; when not standing alone, why not?

πῶς γάρ; πόθεν γάρ; imply that something is impossible (often of surprise). Cp. πῶς γὰρ οὔ; in negative rhetorical questions.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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