Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Previous SubSect

Next SubSect

ἄρα 2787

ἄρα (Epic ἄρα and enclitic ἄρ before a consonant, ῥά usually after monosyllables; all postpositive), a connective, confirmatory, and inferential particle marking the immediate connection and succession of events and thoughts; the natural, direct, and expected consequence of a previous statement of the existing situation, or of the realization of experience of some sort; and agreement of various kinds, as between assertion and reality, cause and result, premise and conclusion, explanation and what was to be explained.

a. ἄρα marks a consequence drawn from the connection of thought, and expresses impression or feeling; the stronger οὖν marks a consequence drawn from facts (a positive conclusion).

2788

The etymology of ἄρα, and hence its original meaning, is obscure. Some derive it from the root ἀρ, seen in ἀρ-αρ-ίσκω fit, join, ἄρτι just; and thus regard the proper sense as fittingly, accordingly. Others think the earliest meaning was truly, forsooth and connect ἄρα with a lost adj. ἀρίς, surviving in ἄρι-στος, ἀρί-γνωτος. On this interpretation ἄρα would originally assert the truth of its own clause. ἄρα is found also in ἆρα and γάρ.

2789

ἄρα is used in Homer much more freely than in Attic, and often so as to defy exact translation. In general ἄρα in Epic marks immediate connection and succession, a natural consequence of something already said or done; gives an explanation of an antecedent statement; or is used in recapitulations and transitions. Thus, αὐτὰρ ἐπεί ἤγερθεν . . ., βῆ ἴμεν εἰς ἀγορήν but when they were collected, then he started to go to the assembly β 9, ὣς ἔφαθ', οἱ δ' ἄρα πάντες ἀκὴν ἐγένοντο σιωπῇ thus he spake, and all accordingly became hushed in silence H 92, σῖτον δέ σφιν ἔνειμε Μεσαύλιος, ὅν ῥα συβώτης αὐτὸς ἐκτήσατο and Mesaulius distributed food to them, a slave whom (and this was the reason for his so doing) the swineherd had acquired ξ 449, ὣς ἄρ' ἐφώνησεν καὶ ἀπὸ ἕο τόξον ἔθηκεν thus then he spake and put the bow from him φ 163. So also in the later language; as ἐρωτήσης δὲ αὐτὸν τῆς μητρὸς . . . ἀπεκρί_νατο ἄρα ὁ Κῦρος on his mother's questioning him Cyrus naturally replied X. C. 1.3.2.

2790

In Attic, and in part also in Homer, ἄρα marks an inference (conse-

-- 636 --

quently, so then, therefore, it seems, after all, of course, etc.). Thus, εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὅτι βασιλεὺς οὐ μαχεῖται δέκα ἡμερῶν· Κῦρος δ' εἶπεν· οὐκ ἄρα ἔτι μαχεῖται, εἰ ἐν ταύταις οὐ μαχεῖται ταῖς ἡμέραις the seer said to him that the king would not fight within ten days. And Cyrus answered:Well then if he does not fight within that time he will not fight at allX. A. 1.7.18, οὐδεὶς ποτοῦ ἐπιθυ_μεῖ, ἀλλὰ χρηστοῦ ποτοῦ . . ., πάντες γὰρ ἄρα τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐπιθυ_μοῦσιν no one desires drink merely, but good drink, since of course everybody desires good things P. R. 438a.

2791

ἄρα is often used of direct logical conclusions in conducting an argument (especially in Plato); as τί οὖν περὶ ψυ_χῆς λέγομεν; ὁρα_τὸν ἢ ἀόρα_τον εἶναι; οὐχ ὁρα_τόν. ἀιδὲς ἄρα; ναί. ὁμοιότερον ἄρα ψυ_χὴ σώματός ἐστιν τῷ ἀιδεῖ, τὸ δὲ τῷ ὁρα_τῷ what then do we say about the soul? That it is visible or invisible? Not visible. Then it is invisible? Yes. Consequently soul has a closer resemblance to the invisible than the body, and the latter to the visible P. Ph. 79b.

2792

In the argument ex contrario set forth in clauses with μέν and δέ, ἄρα, usually meaning in sooth, is commonly placed with the second clause (P. Ph. 80d, R. 445 b), occasionally with the first (P. Cr. 46d, L. 840 b), or with both (P. Ph. 97a, R. 600 c).

2793

In direct questions ἄρα adds liveliness, while at the same time it marks connection or consequence. So τίς ἄρα who then? πῶς ἄρα how then? In questions of anxiety ἄρα marks increase of feeling. Thus, τί μ' ἄρα τί μ' ὀλέκεις; why then, why dost thou destroy me? S. Ant. 1285.

2794

ἄρα occurs in questions in which the admissibility of one opinion is inferred from the rejection of another. Thus, εἰπέ μοι, ἔφη, ὦ Οεοδότη, ἔστι σοι ἀγρός; οὐκ ἔμοιγ', ἔφη. ἀλλ' ἄρα οἰκία_ προσόδους ἔχουσα; ‘tell me,’ said he, ‘Theodote, have you an estate?’ ‘Not I indeed,’ said she. ‘But perhaps then you have a house that brings in an income?X. M. 3.11.4. Such questions are often ironical (P. A. 25a).

2795

ἄρα is often used to indicate new perception, or surprise genuine or affected; as when the truth is just realized after a previous erroneous opinion and one finds oneself undeceived either agreeably or disagreeably. So, especially with the imperfect of εἶναι, ἄρα means after all, it seems, why then, so then, sure enough. See cross1902.

2796

ει' ἄρα, ἐὰ_ν ἄρα if really, if after all, if indeed, are commonly used of that which is improbable or undesirable; ει' (ἐὰ_ν) μὴ ἄρα unless perhaps (nisi forte, nisi vero) is often ironical. Thus, εἰ ἄρα γέγονεν ὡς οὗτοι ἔλεγον if indeed it did take place as they said D. 56.28, καὶ μὴν εἰ καὶ τοῦτ' ἄρα δεῖ μ' εἰπεῖν and yet if I must after all say this too 18. 317, πολλάκις τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις παρῄνει, ἢν ἄρα ποτὲ κατὰ γῆν βιασθῶσι . . . ταῖς ναυσὶ πρὸς ἅπαντας ἀνθίστασθαι he often counselled the Athenians, if after all they should ever be hard pressed on the land side, to fight the world with their fleet T. 1.93, πῶς ἂν οὖν ὁ τοιοῦτος ἀνὴρ διαφθείροι τοὺς νέους; εἰ μὴ ἄρα ἡ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐπιμέλεια διαφθορά_ ἐστιν how then could such a man corrupt the young? unless perchance the study of virtue is corruption X. M. 1.2.8.

2797

εἰ (ἐὰ_ν) ἄρα is common after σκοπῶ, etc. See cross2672.

2798

ἄρα is often used, especially with ὡς, to introduce the statement of others which, in the view of the speaker, is (usually) to be rejected. Thus, ἀκούω

-- 637 --

αὐτὸν ἐρεῖν ὡς ἄρ' ἐγὼ πάντων ὧν κατηγορῶ κοινωνὸς γέγονα I hear that he is going to say that I forsooth (or if you please) have been a partner in all that I denounced D. 19.202.

2799

Attic has, in bimembral clauses, εἴτε ἄρα . . . εἴτε or εἴτε . . . εἴτε ἄρα, as εἴτ' ἀληθὲς εἴτ' ἄρ' οὖν μάτην whether truly or after all, it may be, falsely S. Ph. 345. Hom. has also a similar use with οὔτε . . . οὔτε, and ἢ . . . ἤ. Hom. has ἄρα . . . ἄρα (ψ 887).

Previous SubSect

Next SubSect


Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
Powered by PhiloLogic