]. οὐ AND μή WITH THE PARTICIPLE
The participle has οὐ when it states a fact, μή when it states a condition. On μή due to the force of the leading verb, see cross2737.
οὐ πιστεύων since (as, when, etc.) he does not believe, μὴ πιστεύων if he does not believe,
X. A. 1.2.22, οὐκ ἂν δύναιο μὴ καμὼν εὐδαιμονεῖν thou canst not be happy if thou hast not toiled E. fr. 461, ὡς ἡδὺ τὸ ζῆν μὴ φθονούσης τῆς τύχης how sweet is life if fortune is not envious Men. Sent. 563.
ἀνέβη ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη οὐδενὸς κωλύ_οντος he went up on the mountains since no one hindered him
a. μή with the articular participle is the abridged equivalent of a conditional relative sentence. Thus, in ὁ μὴ ταῦτα ποιῶν ἄδικός ἐστι, ὁ μὴ ποιῶν is virtually the generic ὃς ἂν μὴ ποιῇ or ὅστις μὴ ποιεῖ compressed into a noun.
οὐ is used with a supplementary participle (in indirect discourse) in
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agreement with a noun (or pronoun, expressed or unexpressed) depending on a verb of knowing, showing, seeing, perceiving, etc. ( cross2106- cross2115); and also with such supplementary participles (not in indirect discourse) after verbs of emotion ( cross2100), etc. In most such cases ὅτι οὐ might have been used.
X. M. 2.6.33, φανερὸν πᾶσιν ἐποίησαν οὐκ ἰδίᾳ πολεμοῦντες they made it clear to all that they were not waging war for their own interests Lyc. 50,
οὐδένα γὰρ οἶδα μι_σοῦντα τοὺς ἐπαινοῦντας for I know of no one who dislikes his admirers
X. C. 1.2.8,
ὁρῶσι τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους οὐ . . . ἀπιόντας they see that their elders do not depart
οὐδεὶς μήποθ' εὕρῃ . . . οὐδὲν ἐλλειφθέν no one will ever find that anything has been left undone
X. C. 1.4.15.
Κύ_ρῳ ἥδετο οὐ δυναμένῳ σι_γᾶν he rejoiced that Cyrus was unable to remain silent
ἐπίσταμαι and οἶδα denoting confident belief may take μή for οὐ. Thus,
S. Ph. 79; cp. S. O. C. 656, T. 1.76, 2. 17. This use of μή is analogous to that with the infinitive ( cross2727).
ἔξοιδα φύσει σε μὴ πεφυ_κότα τοιαῦτα φωνεῖν κακά well do I know that by nature thou art not adapted to utter such guile
μή is used when the reason for an action is regarded as the condition under which it takes place; as οὐ τοῦ πλέονος μὴ στερισκόμενοι χάριν ἔχουσιν they are not grateful at not being deprived of the greater part of their rights T. 1.77 ( = εἰ μὴ στερίσκοντο).
The participle with ὡς, ὥσπερ, ἅτε, οἷον, οἷα ( cross2085- cross2087) has οὐ; as
L. 12.73. The use of οὐ shows that there is nothing conditional in the use of ὡς though it is often translated by as if. μή occurs only after an imperative or a conditional word ( cross2737).
ἐθορυβεῖτε ὡς οὐ ποιήσοντες ταῦτα you made a disturbance by way of declaring that you did not intend to do this
Participles of opposition or concession ( cross2083) take οὐ; as
A. Sept. 712.
πείθου γυναιξὶ καίπερ οὐ στέργων ὅμως hearken to women albeit thou likest it not
The participle with the article has οὐ when a definite person or thing is meant, but μή when the idea is indefinite and virtually conditional (whoever, whatever); and when a person or thing is to be characterized (of such a sort, one who; 2705 g). Cp. cross2052.
T. 2.44, οἱ οὐκ ἐθέλοντες the particular persons (or party) who are unwilling Ant. 6.26,
οἱ οὐκ ὄντες the dead
οἱ οὐ βουλόμενοι ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχειν the party of opposition
X. A. 4.5.11 ( = οἵτινες μὴ δύνανται or ὅσοι ἂν μὴ δύνωνται),
οἱ μὴ δυνάμενοι any who are unable
Men. Sent. 422,
ὁ μὴ δαρεὶς ἄνθρωπος οὐ παιδεύεται he who gets no flogging gets no training
D. 18.282, ὁ μηδὲν ἀδικῶν οὐδενὸς δεῖται νόμου he who does no wrong needs no law Antiph. 288.
ὁ μὴ λέγων ἃ φρονεῖ the man who does not say what he thinks