]. οὐ AND μή WITH THE INDICATIVE AND OPTATIVE
SIMPLE SENTENCES AND INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
Statements ( cross2153) expressed by simple sentences and independent clauses take οὐ. Direct questions take either οὐ or μή ( cross2651). The independent future indicative has μή only in questions.
In wishes μή is used with the indicative ( cross1780- cross1781) or the optative ( cross1814, cp. cross2156).
-- 613 --
S. O. T. 1218, μήποτ' ὤφελον λιπεῖν τὴν Σκῦρον would that I had never left Scyrus S. Ph 969.
εἴθε σε μήποτ' εἰδόμα_ν would that I had never seen thee
Ar. Eq. 833,
μὴ ζῴην may I not live
ἀναιδὴς οὔτ' εἰμὶ μήτε γενοίμην I neither am nor may I become shameless
S. Ant. 686.
οὔτ' ἂν δυναίμην μήτ' ἐπισταίμην λέγειν neither could I tell nor may I be capable of telling
a. That ὤφελον takes μή, not οὐ, shows that it has lost to a certain extent its verbal nature. In late Greek it even became a particle like εἴθε.
b. Indirect expressions of wishing with πῶς ἄν and the optative ( cross1832), βουλοίμην ἄν ( cross1827), ἐβουλόμην (ἄν) with the infinitive, take οὐ ( cross1782, cross1789).
c. The use is the same in dependent clauses; as ἐπειδὴ δ' ἃ μήποτ' ὤφελε (συμβῆναι)
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES IN THE INDICATIVE OR OPTATIVE
συνέβη but when that happened which I would had never happened
In subordinate clauses μή or οὐ is used.
a. Final clauses have μή, as
X. A. 2.6.21, ἔδει τὰ ἐνέχυρα τότε λαβεῖν, ὡς μηδ' ει' ἐβούλετο ἐδύνατο ἐξαπατᾶν quoted in 2185 c.
φίλος ἐβούλετο εἶναι τοῖς μέγιστα δυναμένοις, ἵνα ἀδικῶν μὴ διδοίη δίκην he wished to be on friendly terms with men in power in order that he might not pay the penalty for his wrong-doing
b. Object clauses with ὅπως after verbs of effort have μή, as
φρόντιζ' ὅπως μηδὲν ἀνάξιον τῆς τι_μῆς ταύτης πρά_ξεις see to it that you do nothing unworthy of this honour
X. C. 8.1.43.
ἐπεμέλετο ὅπως μήτε ἄσι_τοι μήτε ἄποτοί ποτε ἔσοιντο he took care that they should never be without food or drink
c. Conditional clauses regularly have μή. Thus,
X. A. 2.1.4,
εἰ μὴ ὑ_μεῖς ἤλθετε, ἐπορευόμεθα ἂν ἐπὶ βασιλέα_ if you had not come, we should be marching against the king
X. M. 4.2.40. So in concessive clauses ( cross2369). On οὐ adherescent in conditional clauses see cross2696.
οὐκ ἀπελείπετο αὐτοῦ, εἰ μή τι ἀναγκαῖον εἴη he never left him unless there was some necessity for it
d. Relative Clauses, if conditional, have οὐ with a definite antecedent, μή with an indefinite antecedent ( cross2505). μή is thus used when the case in question is typical of a class (μή ‘generic’). Thus,
X. C. 1.6.46, ἃ μὴ οἶδα οὐδὲ οἴομαι εἰδέναι what I do not know, I do not even think I know P. A. 21d.
προσημαίνουσιν ἅ τε χρὴ ποιεῖν καὶ ἃ οὐ χρή they signify beforehand what one must do and what not
N. 1.—Homer has ὃς (ὅσος) οὐ with the indicative (μή B cross301).
N. 2.—οὐ is regular in relative clauses when an opposition is expressed (T. 1.11. 2), and when a negative clause precedes; as οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις (ὅπως) οὐ οὐδεὶς ὅστις οὐ, etc. (X. C. 1.4.25, X. A. 2.4.3).
e. The expression τοιοῦτος, ὅς (ὅστις, etc.), when preceded by a negative, takes οὐ; as ταμιεῖον μηδενὶ εἶναι μηδὲν τοιοῦτον, εἰς ὃ οὐ πᾶς ὁ βουλόμενος εἴσεισι it is necessary that no one shall have (such) a storehouse that anybody who pleases may not enter it P. R. 416d. But even when no negative precedes, we have οὐ, when the relative clause makes an assertion or defines attributively; as -- 614 --
I. 15.35. When the antecedent is general or is thought of in respect of its character we have μή; as
συγγραφεὺς τῶν λόγων . . . τοιοῦτος, οἷος οὐδεὶς ἄλλος γέγονε such a writer of speeches as no one had been
I. 4.89; cp. cross2705 g.
βουληθεὶς τοιοῦτον μνημεῖον καταλιπεῖν, ὃ μὴ τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης φύσεώς ἐστιν wishing to leave behind him such a memorial as would surpass human nature
f. Relative clauses of purpose take μή, as
S. O. T. 1411,
θαλάσσιον ἐκρί_ψατ', ἔνθα μήποτ' εἰσόψεσθ' ἔτι cast me out into the sea where ye may never see me more
S. Tr. 903.
κρύψα_σ' ἑαυτήν, ἔνθα μή τις εἰσίδοι hiding herself where no one might see her
g. Clauses with a relative pronoun referring to an antecedent thought of in respect of its character (of such a sort) take μή. The use of μή characteristic comes from the generic meaning of μή, i.e. the antecedent is not regarded simply as a person who does something but as a person of such a nature as, one who typifies a class. In such cases ὃς μή may refer to a definite person or thing. So especially in relative clauses of cause and result, which ordinarily take οὐ. Thus,
P. Eu. 302b,
ταλαίπωρος ἄρα τις σύ γε ἄνθρωπος εἶ . . ., ᾧ μήτε θεοὶ πατρῷοί εἰσι μήτε ἱερά a wretched being art thou then, who hast neither ancestral gods nor shrines
ψηφίσασθε τοιαῦτα ἐξ ὧν μηδέποτε ὑ_μῖν μεταμελήσει pass such a vote that you will never repent of it
D. 21.161, ὁ . . . μηδὲν ἂν ὀμόσα_ς the man who would not take an oath 54. 40. Sophocles is especially fond of the generic μή.
τοιαῦτα λέγειν . . ., οἷς μηδεὶς ἂν νεμεσήσαι to use language at which no one could feel just resentment
h. Consecutive clauses (and consecutive relative clauses) with ὤστε take οὐ with the indicative and optative. Thus, (Λακεδαιμόνιοι) εἰς τοῦτ' ἀπληστία_ς ἦλθον ὥστ' οὐκ ἐξήρκεσεν αὐτοῖς ἔχειν τὴν κατὰ γῆν ἀρχήν the Lacedaemonians became so insatiate in their desires that they were not satisfied with their empire on the land I. 12.103,
E. Or. 379. On τοιοῦτος ὃς οὐ see cross2705 e.
ὥστ' οὐκ ἂν αὐτὸν γνωρίσαιμ' ἂν εἰσιδών so that I should not recognize him, if I were to see him
i. Oaths and protestations in the indicative with μή express a solemn denial or refusal, or repudiate a charge. Thus, ἴστω νῦν Ζεὺς . . . μὴ μὲν τοῖς ἵπποισιν ἀνὴρ ἐποιχήσεται ἄλλος let Zeus now know (i.e. I swear by Zeus) that no other man shall mount these horses K 329, μὰ τὴν Ἀφροδί_την . . . μὴ γώ σ' ἀφήσω by Aphrodite, far be it from me that I should release you Ar. Eccl. 999. Cp. cross2716.