Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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2682

(I) By the relative pronouns οἷος, ὅσος, or by the relative adverb ὡς in exclamations of wonder. The sentences introduced by these words are commonly associated with vocatives or interjections. Cp. cross340.

οἷα ποιεῖς, ὦ ἑταῖρε what are you about, my friend! P. Euth. 15c, ὦ φίλοι . . . , οἵην τερπωλὴν θεοὶ ἤγαγον ἐς τόδε δῶμα friends, such sport the gods have brought into this house! ς 37, ὅσην ἔχεις τὴν δύναμιν how great your power is! Ar. Pl. 748, ὦ πάππε, ὅσα πρά_γματα ἔχεις oh grandfather, how much trouble you have! X. C. 1.3.4, ὦ φίλταθ' Αἷμον, ὥς σ' ἀτι_μάζει πατήρ, oh dearest Haemon, how thy father insults thee! S. Ant. 572, ὡς ἀστεῖος ὁ ἄνθρωπος how charming the man is! P. Ph. 116d.

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a. Exclamatory ὡς may be the relative ὡς; but if it is the demonstrative ὡς, it means properly not how but so. Cp. cross2998.

b. Double οἷος (exclamation within an exclamation) marks a strong contrast (cp. cross2646) in direct and indirect exclamations. Thus, οἷα πρὸς οἵων ἀνδρῶν πάσχω what I suffer and at the hands of what men! S. Ant. 942, ἀπὸ οἵα_ς . . . αὐχήματος τοῦ πρώτου ἐς οἵα_ν τελευτὴν καὶ ταπεινότητα ἀφί_κατο from what boasting at first they had come to what a humiliating end T. 7.75. Triple οἷος in Gorgias, Helen 10.

c. Cp. cross2647 for such sentences as οἵα_ν ἔχιδναν τήνδ' ἔφυ_σας what a viper is this woman whom thou hast begotten! E. Ion 1262.

d. οἴμ' ὡς is common in expressions of impatience, anger, pity, grief, or fear; as οἴμ' ὡς καταγελᾷς ah me, how you mock me! Ar. Nub. 1238, οἴμ' ὡς ἔοικας ὀψὲ τὴν δίκην ἰδεῖν ah me, how thou seemest all too late to see the right! S. Ant. 1270, οἴμ' ὡς δέδοικα ah me, how I fear! Ar. Pax 173.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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