Direct (independent) exclamatory sentences with a verb expressed (or easily supplied) are formed2682
(I) By the relative pronouns οἷος, ὅσος, or by the relative adverb ὡς in exclamations of wonder. The sentences introduced by these words are commonly associated with vocatives or interjections. Cp. cross340.
οἷα ποιεῖς, ὦ ἑταῖρε
ὦ πάππε, ὅσα πρά_γματα ἔχεις
ὡς ἀστεῖος ὁ ἄνθρωπος
a. Exclamatory ὡς may be the relative ὡς; but if it is the demonstrative ὡς, it means properly not how but so. Cp. cross2998.
b. Double οἷος (exclamation within an exclamation) marks a strong contrast (cp. cross2646) in direct and indirect exclamations. Thus,
οἷα πρὸς οἵων ἀνδρῶν πάσχω
ἀπὸ οἵα_ς . . . αὐχήματος τοῦ πρώτου ἐς οἵα_ν τελευτὴν καὶ ταπεινότητα ἀφί_κατο
c. Cp. cross2647 for such sentences as
οἵα_ν ἔχιδναν τήνδ' ἔφυ_σας
d. οἴμ' ὡς is common in expressions of impatience, anger, pity, grief, or fear; as
οἴμ' ὡς καταγελᾷς
οἴμ' ὡς ἔοικας ὀψὲ τὴν δίκην ἰδεῖν
Indirect (dependent) exclamations form subordinate clauses in sentences which, taken as a whole, are statements ( cross2575. 4). They are introduced by οἷος, ὅσος, οἵως, ὡς, οἷ, ἵνα. The negative is οὐ. It is often difficult to distinguish between indirect exclamations and indirect questions introduced by οἷος or ὅσος. But observe that dependent exclamations are not introduced by the direct interrogatives ποῖος, πόσος, πῶς, etc., nor by the indefinite relatives ὁποῖος, ὁπόσος, ὅπως, etc., both of which classes of words may stand in indirect questions.
a. ὁποῖος in
b. The introductory verb is sometimes omitted; as ὦ μιαρώτατος, ἵν' ὑποδέδυ_κεν
Dependent exclamatory clauses follow, as regards mood and tense, the same rules as govern indirect questions ( cross2677). An original indicative remains unchanged after primary tenses of verbs followed by a finite mood, but may become optative after secondary tenses on the principle of indirect discourse.
οἷον ἄνδρα λέγεις ἐν κινδύ_νῳ εἶναι
σκόπει . . . ἵν' ἥκει τοῦ θεοῦ μαντεύματα
ἐνθυ_μούμενοι ὅσον πλοῦν . . . ἀπεστέλλοντο
ἐννοηθέντες οἷά τε πάσχουσιν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ ὅτι νῦν τεθναίη ὁ ἄρχων αὐτῶν
διαθεώμενος αὐτῶν ὅσην μὲν χώρα_ν καὶ οἵα_ν ἔχοιεν
ἐπιδεικύντες οἵα_ εἴη ἡ ἀπορία_
Verbs and other words of emotion (praise, blame, wonder, etc.) and the expression of its results are often followed by a dependent exclamatory clause with οἷος, ὅσος, ὡς, etc. Here a causal sentence would have ὅτι τοιοῦτος, ὅτι τοσοῦτος, ὅτι οὕτως. English generally introduces such clauses by considering, thinking, upon the reflection how, etc. Thus,
τῶ σ' αὖ νῦν ὀίω ἀποτεισέμεν, ὅσσα μ' ἔοργας
τὸ γῆρας ὑμνοῦσιν ὅσων κακῶν σφίσιν αἴτιον
εὐδαίμων μοι ἁ_νὴρ ἐφαίνετο . . . ὡς ἀδεῶς καὶ γενναίως ἐτελεύτα_
Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].