Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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Direct (independent) exclamatory sentences with a verb expressed (or easily supplied) are formed


(I) By the relative pronouns οἷος, ὅσος, or by the relative adverb ὡς in exclamations of wonder. The sentences introduced by these words are commonly associated with vocatives or interjections. Cp. cross340.

οἷα ποιεῖς, ὦ ἑταῖρε what are you about, my friend! P. Euth. 15c, ὦ φίλοι . . . , οἵην τερπωλὴν θεοὶ ἤγαγον ἐς τόδε δῶμα friends, such sport the gods have brought into this house! ς 37, ὅσην ἔχεις τὴν δύναμιν how great your power is! Ar. Pl. 748, ὦ πάππε, ὅσα πρά_γματα ἔχεις oh grandfather, how much trouble you have! X. C. 1.3.4, ὦ φίλταθ' Αἷμον, ὥς σ' ἀτι_μάζει πατήρ, oh dearest Haemon, how thy father insults thee! S. Ant. 572, ὡς ἀστεῖος ὁ ἄνθρωπος how charming the man is! P. Ph. 116d.

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a. Exclamatory ὡς may be the relative ὡς; but if it is the demonstrative ὡς, it means properly not how but so. Cp. cross2998.

b. Double οἷος (exclamation within an exclamation) marks a strong contrast (cp. cross2646) in direct and indirect exclamations. Thus, οἷα πρὸς οἵων ἀνδρῶν πάσχω what I suffer and at the hands of what men! S. Ant. 942, ἀπὸ οἵα_ς . . . αὐχήματος τοῦ πρώτου ἐς οἵα_ν τελευτὴν καὶ ταπεινότητα ἀφί_κατο from what boasting at first they had come to what a humiliating end T. 7.75. Triple οἷος in Gorgias, Helen 10.

c. Cp. cross2647 for such sentences as οἵα_ν ἔχιδναν τήνδ' ἔφυ_σας what a viper is this woman whom thou hast begotten! E. Ion 1262.

d. οἴμ' ὡς is common in expressions of impatience, anger, pity, grief, or fear; as οἴμ' ὡς καταγελᾷς ah me, how you mock me! Ar. Nub. 1238, οἴμ' ὡς ἔοικας ὀψὲ τὴν δίκην ἰδεῖν ah me, how thou seemest all too late to see the right! S. Ant. 1270, οἴμ' ὡς δέδοικα ah me, how I fear! Ar. Pax 173.


(II) By the infinitive ( cross2015, cross2036).


Direct exclamations without a verb may be expressed by the vocative or nominative ( cross1288) or by the genitive of cause ( cross1407).


Indirect (dependent) exclamations form subordinate clauses in sentences which, taken as a whole, are statements ( cross2575. 4). They are introduced by οἷος, ὅσος, οἵως, ὡς, οἷ, ἵνα. The negative is οὐ. It is often difficult to distinguish between indirect exclamations and indirect questions introduced by οἷος or ὅσος. But observe that dependent exclamations are not introduced by the direct interrogatives ποῖος, πόσος, πῶς, etc., nor by the indefinite relatives ὁποῖος, ὁπόσος, ὅπως, etc., both of which classes of words may stand in indirect questions.

a. ὁποῖος in L. 30.4 and ὁπόσος in P. G. 522a are suspected.

b. The introductory verb is sometimes omitted; as ὦ μιαρώτατος, ἵν' ὑποδέδυ_κεν oh the rascal! (to think) where he crept in! Ar. Vesp. 188.


Dependent exclamatory clauses follow, as regards mood and tense, the same rules as govern indirect questions ( cross2677). An original indicative remains unchanged after primary tenses of verbs followed by a finite mood, but may become optative after secondary tenses on the principle of indirect discourse.

a. Indicative: οἷον ἄνδρα λέγεις ἐν κινδύ_νῳ εἶναι what a noble man you say is in danger! P. Th. 142b, σκόπει . . . ἵν' ἥκει τοῦ θεοῦ μαντεύματα judge to what the oracles of the god have come S. O. T. 953 (cp. ὦ θεῶν μαντεύματα, ἵν' ἐστέ cross946), τίς οὐκ οἶδεν ἐξ οἵων συμφορῶν εἰς ὅσην εὐδαιμονία_ν κατέστησαν; who does not know into what good fortune they came and after what sufferings? I. 6.42, ἐνθυ_μούμενοι ὅσον πλοῦν . . . ἀπεστέλλοντο reflecting on how long a voyage they were on the point of being sent T. 6.30, ἐννοηθέντες οἷά τε πάσχουσιν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων καὶ ὅτι νῦν τεθναίη ὁ ἄρχων αὐτῶν reflecting what they were suffering at the hands of the Assyrians and that their ruler was now dead X. C. 4.2.3.

b. Optative: διαθεώμενος αὐτῶν ὅσην μὲν χώρα_ν καὶ οἵα_ν ἔχοιεν observing how great the extent of their country was and how excellent its quality X. A. 3.1.19,

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ἐπιδεικύντες οἵα_ εἴη ἡ ἀπορία_ pointing out what their difficulty was 1. 3. 13. See also cross2687.


Verbs and other words of emotion (praise, blame, wonder, etc.) and the expression of its results are often followed by a dependent exclamatory clause with οἷος, ὅσος, ὡς, etc. Here a causal sentence would have ὅτι τοιοῦτος, ὅτι τοσοῦτος, ὅτι οὕτως. English generally introduces such clauses by considering, thinking, upon the reflection how, etc. Thus, τῶ σ' αὖ νῦν ὀίω ἀποτεισέμεν, ὅσσα μ' ἔοργας therefore I think now thou shalt in turn atone for all thou hast done unto me Φ 399, ἀπέκλα_ον . . . τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ τύχην, οἵου ἀνδρὸς ἑταίρου ἐστερημένος εἴην I bewailed my fate considering what a companion I had lost (direct = οἵου ἀνδρὸς ἑταίρου (ὄντος) ἐστέρημαι) P. Ph. 117c, μάκαρ ὦ Στρεψίαδες, αὐτός τ' ἔφυ_ς ὡς σοφὸς χοἶον τὸν υἱὸν τρέφεις oh happy Strepsiades, how wise you are yourself and what a son you have! Ar. Nub. 1206, τὸ γῆρας ὑμνοῦσιν ὅσων κακῶν σφίσιν αἴτιον they rehearse how many evils old age occasions them P. R. 329b, εὐδαίμων μοι ἁ_νὴρ ἐφαίνετο . . . ὡς ἀδεῶς καὶ γενναίως ἐτελεύτα_ the man seemed to me to be happy so fearlessly and nobly did he die P. Ph. 58e, ζηλῶ γε τῆς εὐτυχία_ς τὸν πρέσβυν, οἷ μετέστη ξηρῶν τρόπων I envy the old fellow his fortune, how (lit. whither) he has changed his arid ways Ar. Vesp. 1451.

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Herbert Weir Smyth [n.d.], A Greek Grammar for Colleges; Machine readable text [info] [word count] [Smyth].
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